1*Ojo, N.A.,3Sodipo, O. A., 1Ngulde, S. I.  1Simon, J.,1Adawaren, E. O., 1Yahi, D.,

1Madziga, H. A.,1Telta, A. D.,1Dibila, H. M., Ndahi, J.J4. and 2Mbaya, Y. P.

1Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

2 Department of Animal Science and Range Management

School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology

Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

3Department of Clinical Pharmacology,

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri,

Borno State, Nigeria

4 Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.




Traditional medicine is the ancient and culture bound medical practice which existed before the

application of modern science  to health. It is still  popular  today despite  the giant  strides in

science, technology and modern health. This paper reviews the role of traditional medicine in

modern health with emphasis on the local formulation, consumption, challenges and economy of

traditional medicine  in Nigeria.  References were  drawn mostly  from Africa but also include

those from other parts of the world. It was concluded that traditional medicine was contributing

positively to the improvement of health and economy of the country. There is the need for more

commitment on the side  of  government for integration  of traditional  medicine  into the main

streamline of health care delivery system in the country.

Key Words: traditional medicine, Nigeria, modern health, economy 


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1 Jibrin, A. D. 2 Chukwumati John

Horticultural Technology Department, Federal College of Horticulture P.M.B. 108

Dadin- kowa, Gombe State. 2 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture

University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State


Field experiment was conducted during the  2011  rainy season  at the

demonstration farm of Federal College  of Horticulture, Dadin-kowa, to evaluate  the

influence of variety and poultry manure on the growth and yield of sesame. The treatment

consisted of two sesame varieties (Farar- ridi and E8) and four levels of poultry manure

(0, 5, 7.5  and 10t/ha)  arranged in a randomized  complete block  design with four

replications. Results showed that variety significantly increased plant height and number

of leaves at 6, 8 and 12 weeks after sowing (WAS), 1000 seed weight and seed yield per

hectare. Variety E8  produced the  highest  values  of  these  parameters.  Poultry  manure

levels significantly  increased plant  height  and  number of leaves  at 4,8 and 12 WAS,

number of branches at 8  and 12 WAS, 1000 seed weight  and seed yield per hectare.

Poultry manure at 7.5 t/ha produced the highest value in the parameters stated above.

Interaction was significant in plant height at 12 WAS and seed yield. Therefore, variety

E8 and poultry  manure  at 7.5t/ha  gave  higher value in all  the  parameters studied.

Further study is hereby suggested to validate the effect of variety and poultry manure on

sesame production in the study area. 

Keywords: Growth, Poultry manure, Sesame, Variety, Yield.


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Department of Soil Science, University of Uyo, P.M.B. 1017, Uyo

(2)Department of Soil Science University of Calabar

P.M.B. 1115, Calabar


Corrosion is a leading cause of pipeline failure in the oil and gas industries because of the

activities microbial populations.   The  aim of the study was to assess fungal  diversity

associated with corrosive biofilms of oil pipelines in two sites (Warri in Delta and Oshie in

Rivers States) within the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Coupons were inserted into the inner

surfaces of the pipelines (9’’, 10’’, 18’’ and 24’’ diameter) through the access valves for a

period of 127 days. The coupons were detached from the inner surfaces of the pipelines at the

end of 127 days and biofilm formed on the surfaces of each coupon were scraped with sterile

razor blades and collected into sterile bottles containing 5 ml phosphate-buffered saline at

pH 7 and taken to the laboratory for the cultivation fungi. The results from Rivers State (site

1)  showed the  following fungal  species:  Verticillum dahlae, Botrytis  cineriae, Penicillium

corylophilum, Humicola grisae, Aureobasidium  pullulans,  Monilia balanitis, Hormoconis

resinae, Sacchanomyces cerevisae, Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium semitectum, Bactridium

sp and Eurotium repens. The results revealed a Sorenson’s coefficient (cc) of 0.60, indicating

that fungal communities in site 1 and 2 have a bit of overlap or similarity. The results further

showed that  diversity and evenness in site  2 are much higher than in site  1. Fungal

populations in sites 2 are not only higher in the number of species present, but the individuals

in the community are distributed equitably among these species.  This shows that pipelines

located in site  1 (Delta State)  are likely to be  severely  corroded than site  2 (River State).

Microbial communities in biofilms developed on surfaces of metals in natural environments

are heterogeneous and  there  is significant uncert ainty concerning  how  many  of these

organisms contribute to corrosion of metals. Therefore, the thorough knowledge of microbial

species inhabiting biofilms of oil pipelines will give effective means of detecting, monitoring

and control of corrosion of oil  pipelines;  this will significantly  reduce  pollution of

agricultural lands and the environment by oil spillages in the Niger Delta. 

Keyword:  Fungal diversity, biofilms, corroded oil pipelines 


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(1) Gbarabe, Roland2Daye,Barango Owuna  (3). Etukudoh, Ndarake E.

1,2Department of Biological Sciences, Rivers State College of Arts and Sciences, 

Rumuola Port Harcourt, Nigeria

3Rivers State University of Technology, P.M.B 5080, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria


arious  factors are responsible for the spoilage  of stored Mucuna sloanei Seed and other

Agricultural produce. The  most relevant ones are fungal  diseases.   Thus, this present

Investigation was under taken to determine the effects of environmental relative humidity on

the pathogenicity  of M. sloanei   by  the seed  and the soil  borne    fungi.  Pathogenic fungi

(Aspergillus flavus,  Aspergillus niger, Penicilliums  scherotigeilum and Botryodiplodia

theobromae)  were  isolated from the infested   M. sloanei seed and from the soil  and

inoculated into M. sloanei  for the experiment.The  inoculated seeds were  kept in Relative

Humidity (10, 20, 40, 60 80 and 100%) chambers (exposed to light  and in darkness for 21

days then examined for rot, appearance and for feel. Results indicated that seed borne fungi

were more pathogenic as compared to soil isolates. Aspergillus specie was more pathogenic

in all the treatment options as compared to other organisms. The results also indicated that

exposing the  inoculated  seeds  to lower and  higher relative  humidity  in  the dark  did not

significantly  increased  the  pathogenicity  rate  in  all  treatment options.  Correlation  studies

indicated positive relationship between relative humidity and fungal pathogenicity with the

highest (0.96) recorded  in M. sloani seed inoculated with seed borne  A.  flavus exposed  to


Keys   words: Pathogens, Pathogenicity,  Inoculation, Humidity, Coefficient, Correlation,

Leguminous, Infestation, Mitotic. 

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Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture

University of Uyo, Bag10l7, Uyo, Nigeria


Five  soil  extractants: Bray  P-1 (BPI), Mehlich III  (M3), Mehlich I(M1), Modified Morgan

(MM) and Morgan  (MG),  were  evaluated  for available phosphorus (P)  in soil  formed on

coastal plain sands (CPS)  parent material  in Southeastern Nigeria. Total  P was also

fractionated to determine its chemical forms in the soil. Results of the study  showed that

extractable P concentrations varied in the order: BPI > M3 > MM > M1 > MG, indicating

that BPI was the most and MG the least suitable extractant for estimating P availability to

plants in  the studied soil. All the extractants except MG, removed P concentrations which

were above the critical value (15mg kg-1) established for southeast zone of Nigeria, implying

that  the soil  was rich  in P and  any  recommendations for fertilizers  P would be  for

maintenance of adequate soil P or to provide a starter effect. Total and organic P contents

were  low  compared  to values obtained by  other workers. The  distribution and relative

abundance of active inorganic forms of P, plant available forms, varied in the order: iron-

bound P (Fe-P) > aluminium –P (Al – P) > Calcium – P (Ca – P).

Keywords: Soil extractants, Coastal Plain Sands, Phosphorus, Shifting. 


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1Department of Forestry & Environment 

Rivers State University Science and Technology, Port Harcourt.

2Bayelsa State College of Education, Education, Okpoma, Brass Island


The  effects of burning, intercropping and dry grass  mulching on the performance  of two

cocoyam (tannia) cultivars were investigated. The study indicated that burning reduced the

fresh weights of leaves of cocoyams irrespective of the cultivar while increasing the number

of cormels per corm but reduced corms/cormel weight. However, the frequency of root and

corm rot (cocoyam decline disease) was least in burnt than in unburnt plots irrespective of

the cultivar. In all  the cultivars (“Eduhie” and Edeocha)  studied, cocoyam sole-crops had

the least frequency of occurrences of the disease than the intercropped plants. The disease

was not recorded  in sole crops mulched with 10 tonnes/ha for all  the cultivars.

Recommendations based      on  this research and  the findings  of other workers on  burning,

intercropping and grass mulching are made.

Keywords: Inter-Cropping, Cultivars, Cocoyam Declined Disease (CDD), Post-Harvest,

Mulching, Agronomic  

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Antiabong O. Ekong, Aniefiok S. Akpan and Ngozi G. Ubah

Department of Vocational Education

University of Uyo

P. M. B. 1017, Uyo

Akwa Ibom State- Nigeria


This study assessed the influence reward system on attrition tendencyof Agriculture teachers in  Akwa  Ibom State.  Two  research questions  and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The entire population of 316 serving Agriculture teachers were purposively used for the study. A two  sectioned–11-items  structured  questionnaire  was developed and used for data  collection. Data were analyzed using mean  for the research questions and t-test  for testing the hypotheses at 0.05 level  of significance. The findings revealed that job security ensure stability of agriculture teachers in  the teaching profession  while  regular payment of salary promotes collaborative self-help and interest in the management of scare resources among Agriculture teachers. The result of hypothesis testing showed a  significant difference  in  the mean  responses  of male and female Agriculture teachers on  the influence  of job  security on  attrition tendency. The  result of hypothesis two showed no significant difference in the responses of NCE holders and graduates Agriculture teachers on the influence of regular payment of salary on their attrition tendency. It was recommended that the reward system for teachers should be improved to  attract  qualified  and competent individuals to  the system and teachers’  job  security should not be threatened  through incessant queries by principals and supervisors of schools. 



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This paper focuses on the role of business Education towards national security.  Business education is a domain that educate and train individual to acquire skills, attitudes and knowledge to become self reliant.  If well taught in our schools the tendency of violent, youth unemployment and unrest, poverty and thuggery will be a thing of the past. Thus leading to peaceful  society.   With National Policy  on Education empowering on these roles, Business education has the capacity  to delivered Nigeria  into a committee of developed nations in the nearest future.

Key word: Business Education, National Security.


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 1John A. U. Uka(2) Vincent E. Onweh (3) Peter J. Udoessiet

Department of Technical Education, 

Rivers State University of Education

Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt, Rivers State.

(2,3) Department of Vocational Education

University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State.


The curriculum is the prime mover to achieve students’ skills acquisition. It is always in tandem with the dynamics and societal changes. Skills acquisition of employable skills for self-reliance have  received increasing  attention in the recent past  in Nigerian Educational Policy. An important ingredient for success in the on-going efforts by the government at alleviating poverty, minimizing corruption, attaining food  security, achieving uninterrupted electric  power supply, reducing unemployment of youths and keeping pace with the dynamics of societal changes and emerging technologies, is the effective delivery of qualitative technical and vocational education courses. This paper highlights constructivism in instructional delivery as what most present-day technical teachers should adopt: a framework in which the role of the teacher becomes that of a facilitator. The  paper posits the  need to strengthen the vocational education curriculum, adequately  supply  of instructional materials  and  the motivate  the teacher who is at  the centre stage of all the activities in skills acquisition. Some recommendations to government were also made.

Keywords:   Dynamics, Societal, Changes, Curriculum, Vocational skills Acquisition


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Bakare Waheed Ademola and Babajo Hapsatu

Department of Agricultural Education

School of vocation education

Federal College of Education, Yola 


This paper identified sustainable Agricultural Education as a key to National Security, by looking at roles of agricultural education which include preparing graduates with right professional competence in vocational skills, producing teachers who will be capable of motivating students to acquire interest in agriculture, equipping the students teachers with adequate knowledge  and ability  to  establish and manage  a model  school farm effectively and providing a sound background to enhance  further academic  and professional progression  of the students-teachers. All these  are aimed at providing enabling ground in eradicating ignorance, poverty and sustainable food security for the country. Recommendations are made on how to achieve this laudable agriculture for selfreliance, so that  Nigeria  will soon be  among the  committee  of developed  Nations with peaceful  society.

Keywords; Sustainable, Security, Agriculture, Vocational, Global, Reliant, Egalitarian,Harmony  


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