Adigun Michael Olubayo

Department of Crop Production, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria


The aim of the experiment was to identify bacteria that are potentially capable of biodegrading and remediating the soil polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons. Soil samples of five locations within Ogun state namely Orile-olowu village, Adedero village, Ijebu-ogere village, oil palm plantation in Ago-iwoye and cassava plantation in Ayetoro were polluted by adding various concentrations of engine oil and water. The sample soils treated were incubated for 9 weeks and periodically (i.e. at 3 weeks interval) took samples. The samples were to 10-4 and inoculated on nutrient agar. Colony count were recorded and every 3 weeks the species were identified, to identify the type of bacteria capable of utilizing hydrocarbon oil. The numbers of colony decreased with time and concentration, in Ijebu-Ogere village soil sample at 16.7%, 9%, 4.7% oil pollution levels, at 3 weeks and 6 weeks respectively; the same and similar trends occurred in other soil types. It was found that Vibrious harveyr, and Spirillium volutans bacteria were persistence in almost all treatments more than other bacteria species.

KEYWORDS: Bacteria, Polluted Soil, Engine Oil, Bioremediation, Nutrient Agar, Differential Ability

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                                                  Uyokei .U, Audu .P Adeboye .M.K.

 National Cereals Research Institute Baddegi, Niger state

 Department of Soil Science Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State



The study evaluated some soil chemical properties, including soil reaction, organic carbon and total nitrogen content of two typical soils designated as A and B of the Federal University of Technology Minna, Teaching  and Research farm. A profile pit was dug to represent each soil and samples were taken in triplicate from soil depth at 0-20cm, 20-20cm, 20-60cm and 60+cm. Analysis was conducted using standard methods. Soil organic carbon decreases as depth increases the amount of soil organic carbon ranged between 6.11-12.11gkg-1 for soil A and 5.65-14.23gkg-1 for soil B. The total nitrogen content ranged between 6.11-12.11gkg-1 for soil A and 0.95-1.88gkg-1 for soil B .The total nitrogen decrease with increasing soil depth. Soil reaction increased with depth. Soil reaction ranged between 6.3-6.7 for pH in water and between5.6-5.8 for pH in CaCl2 for soil A while that of soil B ranged between 6.6-6.8 for pH In water and between 5.5-5.8 for  pH in CaCl2.The correlation of the chemical properties shows that there was a significantly (p<0.05) correlation between total nitrogen and soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and pH in water and also between  organic carbon and pH in CaCl2.The soil of the University Teaching and Research farm were found to be slightly acidic and also to contain medium amount of organic carbon and total nitrogen at depth 0-20cm, however the amount was low above 20cm depth.

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Azubuike Adams

School of science, Jigawa state college of education,

P.M.B 1002, Gumel.



Pollution has existed since man appeared on earth, but the scale and variety of pollutants has greatly increased in modern times with the population explosion and rapid urbanization and industrialization. It looks strange to sight a lot of people in Ringim who could not realize the problems of environmental pollution in the area. Their health averagely falls short of expected standards of other local areas in the town. The purpose of the work was to investigate the causes and the effect of pollution on the inhabitants of Ringim town in Jigawa State of Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed in Marakwa, KWanar mai Ganga, Sabon-Garin Ausar, Katutu and Harumi wards and all were returned.  The responses of the subject were however analyzed using relevant statistical analysis (Tables and simple percentage). Results showed that 86.6% of the respondents were of the opinion that environmental pollution significantly impact on the health of the people of area is immeasurable. The results also showed that sources of pollution were; air (33.3%), land (16.7%), water (36.7%), noise (6.7%) and light/ray (3.4%) while 3.20% source was beyond the scope of this study. Offensive odour from the disposal wastes was also noted. It was recommended that indiscriminate disposal of wastes should be stopped and a decree should be enacted on the careless dumping of refuse and that refuse should be burnt in incinerators.

KEYWORDS: Pollutants Respondents, Unkempt ,Garbage, Photosynthesis and Offensive, Odour. 

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Hart, E. A;  J. A. Chukwumati and D. A. Achimota

Ministry of Agriculture & Natural resources, Rivers State, Land Resources department

Department of crop and soil science, University of Port Harcourt, Choba.

Department of crop and soil science Niger Delta University



The third order semi-detailed or medium-intensity soil survey of the Rigid Grid procedure was used to survey the soils of a sample strip along a catena in the Andoni Forest of Rivers State, southern Nigeria, to ascertain the physical and chemical status of the soils. Traverses were cut perpendicular to the established base-line at 250m intervals and at 250m along both traverses and base-line, auger points were established.  Soil samples collected at 20cm intervals for each auger-boring were described morphologically, and later grouped to indicate where profile pits would be sunk.  Soils thus grouped according to similarities in pedon characteristic were subjected to physical and chemical analyses. Seven soil mapping units were established. Pedons studied reveal a general increase in percentage sand (95-99%). pH values ranged from 5.1-6.7 with a mean  of 5.7; characteristic of pH values of humid tropical soils. There was an inverse relationship between exchangeable acidity and pH, confirming the low values of cation exchange capacity (CEC) obtained (4.18 cmol/k), percentage base saturation (PBS) was high throughout. Total Nitrogen content was low ( 0.1-0.33%). Same was obtained for organic matter (0.03-1.09%). There was a wide range of C:N as a result of the accumulation of organic matter on the surface horizons. Low levels of phosphorus (P) were observed despite the soil’s proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. Values for Total potassium (k) gave a range of 1.72-3.34% with an average of 2.18%. With its wide range of plants and animal species of tropical origin therefore, the study area presents an area that could, in future, be developed into a nature conversation zone. The forest manager or wildlife conservationist would find the information generated in this work very useful. Results obtained could as well be transferred technologically to other zones which are agro climatic analogues of the research area.

KEYWORDS: Characterization, Soils, Forest, Andoni.

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Charles G. T. Omuaru

Department of Fine and Applied Arts

Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni,

P. M. B. 5047, Port Harcourt.


Parental guidance and peer grouping plays important role in child development and education, especially in creative art in the secondary schools; however, in certain respects this has continued to generate challenges. Poor attitude of students towards creative arts is a perennial problem that has, for decades, negate the overall acceptance of the creative art as a subject of learning in the schools, designed to train people for small scale businesses and support for the industries.  The study is designed to study the influence of Parental background on students and examine influence of Peer group on students’ attitude towards Creative arts in Junior Secondary Schools in Port Harcourt Metropolis. A number of theories have been reviewed on the study, and in conclusion, the need for the study of students’ attitude towards Creative art is established. For in-depth investigations, two research questions and two hypotheses were developed to direct the research. Survey design was used, this was adopted because it seeks to examine the attitude of small representation to draw inference at the overall population. Port Harcourt, the research area was divided into five strata; 3 schools of close affinity formed one stratum. A researcher developed instrument named SATCASQ (Students’ Attitude towards Creative Art Studies Questionnaire) was used to generate data from randomly selected sample size of 300 students, out of 5,500 students’ population from 15 schools in the Metropolis. A 60% response was recorded from the structured questionnaire sent out, which was committed to data analyses. The data were analysed with Chi-square statistic to determine the influence on the variables. The data analyses clearly showed that there is a high degree of influence of culture and societal influence on students’ attitude towards Creative art in junior secondary schools in Port Harcourt metropolis. Therefore, the null hypotheses are rejected and the alternative hypotheses are retained.

KEYWORDS: Creative art, Parental and Peer group influence, Students’ attitude.


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Department of Agronomy,

University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.




An efficient system for re-circulating of organic waste / cow dung biogas residue back to arable land could be a solution to part of the waste problems and soil fertility problem confronting many developing countries.

This field experiment attempts to investigate the efforts of cured cow dung biogas effluents as organic fertilizer on the growth of Amaranthus caudatus, Abelmoschus esculentus and Telferia occidentalis.

A randomized complete block (RCB) experimental design was used. Three different fertilizer sources were used to arrive at seven treatment combinations of various rates of application. The different fertilizers used were NPK (15-15-15), Pacesetters Organomineral Fertilizer (OMF) and cured cow dung biogas effluents.

Each treatment was replicated thrice. Parameters measured on the crops include: number of leaves, plant height, stem girth, fresh and dry plant weights and number of fruits for okra.

There was significant difference between 300 kg ha-1 NPK 15-15-15 and 2 t ha-1 Organomineral fertilizer; 2 t ha-1 cured cow dung biogas effluent at 6 WAP on number of leaves of Amaranthus caudatus. At 4 WAP, treatment of 2 t ha-1 cured cow dung biogas effluents gave the highest mean value on stem girth of Abelmoschus esculentus. At 14 WAP, there was a significant difference between 2 t ha-1 cured cow dung biogas effluents and 2 t ha-1 Organomineral fertilizer on number of leaves of Telferia occidentalis.

The fortification of cured cow dung biogas effluents with inorganic (NPK 15-15-15) fertilizer is recommended as it performed better than the Organomineral fertilizer. Application of organic and inorganic fertilizer elements, increase mineralization of organic manure and also prolong the duration of availability of the nutrients to plant.

KEYWORDS: Randomized Complete Block, Organomineral Fertilizer, Biogas Effluents, Cured Cow Dung, Parameters, Fortification, Developing Countries.

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Wenibo, A  Etukudoh, N.E.

Isaac Jasper Boro College of Education Sagbama, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.


Meander Belt Soils (Alluvial soils) world over have been reported as fertile soils, thus must possess suitable physical properties necessary for soil fertility. Hence, this research was conducted to assess physical properties of Okordia/Zarama meander belt soils. Eight pedons, two each were cited in four physiographic units (Levee Crest, Levee slope, Terrace and Backswamp). Soil samples from each pedon were collected and analyzed for physical properties. Results showed that Levee Crest soils had the highest bulk density (1.41g/m3), total porosity(47%), percent sand (72%), in 0-20cm soil depth and particle density of 2.61g/m3 in 21-40cm soil depth, Levee slope and Terrace soils had the highest percent silt of 51% and 67% respectively in 21-40cm soil depth. Texturally, the soil of the Levee Crest was sandy loam in both 0-20 and 21-40cm soil depth, respectively.Terrace and Backswamp soils were predominantly clay and sandy clay respectively, in both soil depths. Using soil taxonomy (USDA), all the soils were classified into the order inceptisols. The levee soils were classified into the subgroup-typic  Eutrudepts or Eutric cambisol. Terrace and Backswamps were classified as Typic Endoaquepts and Eutric gleysols. The soils are deep enough to support arable crop production. Mulching and drainage were recommended for soil structural development.

KEYWORDS: Typic, Physiographic unit, Taxonomy, inceptisols, Eutrudepts, EutricCambisol, Endoaquepts, Gleysols.

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G. S. Effiong* and D. J. Udoh

Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture

University of Uyo, Bag10l7, Uyo, Nigeria

Abstract:    This study  was conducted to characterize  some inland depression soils in Southeastern Nigeria  and recommend management option for  sustainable  crop production.Eight profile pits were sited at Ekpene Ukpa (Ek1), Nung Obong (NO3 and NO4), Ikot Obong (KS2), Ibiaku Ikot Obong (TU16), Ikot Eto (ND15), Awa Ntong (AU17) and Ikot Okobo (AU18) depressions. Results showed that soil texture ranged from sand through sandy loam to sandy clay  loam. Soil  reaction  varied  from very  strongly  to moderately  acid (3.0 -  6.0) with pH value averaged 5.0 ± 0.4. Organic matter  content was high in the surface  soils (23.22  - 51.43gkg-1)  while total N level was low (0.1 –  1.3gkg-1). Available P  (4.26  -  253mgkg-1ranged from low to very  high. Cation exchange  capacity  (CEC) was low while  percentage base saturation ranged from moderate to high (33 - 83%). The main constraints to sustainable crop production in these soils are low chemical fertility (moderate to high exchange acidity, low CEC, total N level, high percent Al saturation, 20 - 98%) and rapid weed growth. Slash and mulch system along with crop residues return and application of green leaf manures to the soil  could affect several restorative  processes in addition to suppressing  weed growth. Mineral fertilizers, if available could have the desired effect on the soil by increasing biomass production for use as residue mulch and yield of crops.

Keywords: Inland wetlands, characteristics, soil management, crop production. 


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*1.Gaya, A. G., Gurama, A. U.2 and Fagam, A. S.2

 1.Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Kano

University of Science and Technology,Wudil, Kano State, Nigeria

2 Crop Production Programme, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology,

3 Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria


Field trials were  carried out at  the Teaching and Research farm of  Kano University of Science of Technology, Wudil with two pearl millet varieties in 2003, 2004and 2005 rain seasons to investigate the effect of inter- and intra-row spacings of pearl millet infected with downy  mildew on panicle  weight  in Kano State,  Nigeria. The experimental  materials consist of factorial combinations of  two  varieties (SOSAT  C88 and Zango), three  inter-row  spacings (50, 75 and 100cm)  and four intra-row  spacings (15, 30, 45 and 60cm). The treatments were laid out in randomized complete block design with three  replications. Data collected on panicle  weight were  subjected  to analysis ofvariance  and Duncan’s Multiple  Range  Test (DMRT)  was used for the  separation of means at 1% and 5%  levels of significance.  Result  shows that  SOSAT  C88 had significantly (P≤0.05 and P≤0.01) produced the heaviest panicle as compared to Zango which had the lightest in 2003 and 2005. Planting pearl millet at 75cm inter- row spacing significantly  (P≤0.01)  resulted in having heaviest  panicles than using  other inter-row spacings. Using 30 and 60cm intra-row spacings produced the heaviest panicles, while15 and 45cm resulted in getting light panicle heads. Heaviest panicles were significantly (P≤0.01)  obtained when  pearl millet varieties were  inter-  x  intra-row  spaced at 75 x 30cm and 75 x  60cm   combinations respectively  than those spaced out using  other spacing combinations where  lighter panicle  heads were  obtained.  It is however, recommended to grow pearl millet using wider inter- and intra-row spacings for heaviest panicle heads.

Key words: Downy mildew, inter-row, intra-row, panicle weight, pearl millet 


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(1)Voke Mgbonyebi Charles(2)Venerable F.C.A Emeni

(1)Dept of Political Science ( 2) Dept of History

College of Education, Agbor


 This paper highlights the  essence  of good governance  in government and the entrenchment of democracy in the Fourth Republic. A corollary of good governance is transparency in elections and choosing of representatives in  the democratic  system. The  paper examines the electoral system in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic vis-a-vis the practice of democracy and proposes that for national development purposes, good governance and transparency are essential ingredients forentrenchment of democracy in Nigeria.

Key words: Good Governance, Transparency, Development, Fourth Republic.


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