PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS, ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE HEXANE EXTRACT (SEED OIL EXTRACT) OF COCHLOSPERMUM TINCTORIUMA

Abdulsalam O.A., Salehdeen M.U.,  Saka O.L., and Abdulbasit A.A.

Department of Chemistry, Kogi State University Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria.

 Abstract

This research work investigates the phytochemicals and antimicrobial activities of the hexane extract of the seed of C. tinctorium. The seed sample (100g) yielded 79.9% of yellowish brown volatile oil. The phytochemical analysis (qualitative and quantitative) revealed the presence of tannin (0.78mg/g), saponin (0.69mg/g), alkaloid (2.80mg/g) phenolic compounds (6.01mg/g), flavonoid (11.78mg/g) and glycoside (0.02mg/g).The antimicrobial activity using agar diffusion method showed inhibition which serves as an indication that the seed extract is sensitive against disease causing organisms, such as Escherichia coli(4000µg/ml), Staphylococcus aureus(4000µg/ml) at zone of inhibition 15.0mm and 21.0mm respectively.

Keywords: Cochlospermum, Tinctorium, Phytochemical, Activity

 

 

A HYBRID EXPONENTIAL SMOOTHING AND SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES MODELS IN FORECASTING TIME SERIES (USING SUGAR PRODUCTION)

ALFA M. S.1 ADENIJI J. O and CHADOI. M.1

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS1

FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, BIDA

Abstract

The Sugar production data set is made up of 240 obtained from the Nigerian sugar company between January 1981 to December 2000 are used to forecast the time series data with the Holts-Winter (HW), the Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Hybrids models. To assess the forecasting performances of the models, the data are divided into two parts, the first part which is made up of 228 data sets are used for training (modeling) and the second part which is made up of the remaining 12 data sets are used for testing (forecasting). Statistical measures of performances such as Mean Square Error (MSE), Mean Average Error (MAE) and Coefficient of Correlation (R) are used for comparison and the result which shows that the hybrid model gave MSE of12332.97, MAE of 70.3411 and R of 0.5170 is the best model when compared with theSVM (MSE=15009.99), (MAE=88.6720), (R=0.5075) and H-W (MSE=19763.63), (MAE=92.8247), (R=0.4736). The result also indicated that the hybrid model recorded 34.4% improvement over HW model and 25.1% improvement over the traditional SVM model. This paper therefore proposes a hybrid methodology that exploits the HW and the SVM models in forecasting time series using the sugar production data.

Keywords: Sugar Production, Holts-Winters, SVM, Hybrids, Measures, Performanc

 

 

EFFECTS OF DEPO PROVERA ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS HEART

Akinribido F.A, Duru F.I.O and Yama O.E

Dept  Department of Biological Sciences, Bells University of Technology Ota, Ogun State
Dept of Anatomy,College of Medicine,University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos State

 Abstract

 Depo-Provera inhibits follicular development and prevents ovulation in its  primary mechanism of action. (Hatcher, Robert A. 2004).The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare Effects of Depo Provera on the Morphology of heart as it is being used as a contraceptive. A single of Depo Provera contraceptive injection (150mg Medroxyprogesterone Acetate) intraperitoneally, at a dose of 75mg/ 100g body weight was given to ten matured Sprague Dawley rats daily for 10 days. Control matured Sprague Dawley rats of ten received the same amount of distilled water. After about 24hrs later, the rats were sacrificed, the rats heart were assessed morphologically. Weight of treated heart were compared with controls.Morphologically, Depo-Provera stimulated the heart by causing increase in their weight. This shows that Depo Provera has ability to bind with other tissues causing changes in their morphology. The form and structure of any living being are not constant during the whole of its existence, but undergo a series of changes from the commencement of that existence to its end, living beings have a Development. The history of development is an account of the anatomy of a living being at the successive periods of its existence, and of the manner in which one anatomical stage passes into the next.

Keywords: Depo-Provera, Sprague Dawley Rats, Morphology, Heart

TREND IN THE DECLINE OF THE JOS WILDLIFE PARK ECOSYSTEMS, PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA.

T. O. IIRMDU

Department of Geography and Planning, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084, Plateau state, Nigeria.

 Abstract

The study examines the trend in the decline of the Jos Wildlife Park ecosystems. The research methodology used is literature search, face to face oral interview and direct field observation. Data collected were analysed using the descriptive statistical technique. The results from the analyses of the study show that significant changes have occurred in the abundance of species in the Jos Wildlife Park ecosystems. Habitat loss caused by deforestation is the leading cause of ecosystems decline in the Jos Wildlife Park. Human activities and factors such as the inequitable distribution of wealth and power, population growth, and urbanization are the causes of the decline in the parks ecosystems. Information gathered from oral interview with some of the staff of the Park reveals that some of the major causes of the decline in the park ecosystem include deforestation, bush fire, hunting activities, cutting down of trees for fuel wood and furniture, and clearing of land for agriculture and infrastructures. The results show that the increase in population of the communities surrounding the Jos Wildlife Park ecosystem posses a lot of pressure on the park. From the results of the analyses carried out, it was concluded that deforestation exists and has a significant effect on the decline of species on the Park. Conservation of forest resources is an important strategy for dealing with deforestation. Existing forest plantations should be managed sustainably and the cutting that does occur should be balanced by the planting of enough young trees to replace the older ones felled.  It is therefore recommended that afforestation and mitigation by the government to ensure that cutting of trees for any purpose at the Jos Wildlife Park without planting of enough young trees to replace the older ones felled should be discouraged in order to salvage the ecosystem.

KEYWORDS: Trend, Decline, Wildlife Park, Ecosystems, Conservation.

ACUTE TOXICITY,  CHEMICAL  COMPOSITIONS AND EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA STEM BARK ON SOME HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS.

*, N. A. Ojo 1.,  J. Simon1., N. Sambo3.,  S. I . Ngulde., E. O Adawaren1.,  H. A. Madziga.,  D. Yahi1., Y. P Mbaya1.,  J.S. Bargu1., H. M. Dibila1., E. N. Igwenagu2., S. J Badau2.,  J. J. Ndahi,.4., M. S1. Auwal  and, H. M. Dibila 1

1 Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

2Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of

Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

3Department of Human Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Maiduguri,

Borno State, Nigeria

4Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary

Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

 Abstract

Moringa oleifera is considered one of the most useful plant trees, as almost every part of the moringa tree can be used for food and at the same time possessing medicinal properties. The aqueous extract of Moringa oliefera stem bark was investigated for elemental and phytochemical contents. Acute toxicity test and effects of the aqueous extract on red blood cell count (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration were carried out using standard procedures. The elemental contents included phosphorus, sodium, calcium, potassium, sulphur, magnesium, chloride, zinc, iron, manganese and aluminium. The phytochemical contents included carbohydrate, cardiac glycosides, saponins and alkaloids. None of the 5 rats used for the acute toxicity test died, indicating that the aqueous extract was not toxic to the rats even at 5,000 mg/kg body weight dose of the extract.The mean RBC count revealed a significant increase during the period of treatment and one week post treatment as compared to the control. There was a significant increase in PCV throughout the weeks of treatment. A dose dependent increase in Hb concentration was observed in weeks 1 and 2 of treatment. This may be adduced to the presence of iron and copper in M. oleifera leaves hence the justification for its traditional use in treating anaemic conditions. Conclusively, the aqueous extract of M. oleifera stem bark significantly increased red blood cells, packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration in rats. Had wide safety margin, and possessed very useful phytochemical and elemental constituents.

Key Words : Acute toxicity, Aqueous extract, Moringa oleifera, Rats.

 KEEPING PACE WITH THE DYNAMICS OF SOCIETAL

QUALITY ASSURANCE IN THE THEATRE: THEATRE FOR DEVELOPMENT (TFD) AS AN INTERROGATIVE TOOL.

A. M.  Komolafe

Department of Theatre Arts/Music,

Lagos State University, Ojo.

Abstract

There are different dimensions to the topic. Quality assurance. A theoretical consideration could be given in relation to the imput-process, output-model, its framework, plans adopted and others. But the issue that bothers the mind is how well has the symbiosis between the ‘product’ graduates, the departments turn out and services rendered to the society or better placed, how well have we (lecturers, scholars and practitioners) of TfD impacted on the citizenry that we are trained to empower on one hand and on the other hand, how well has governance either (Local, State or Federal) affected and changed the lives of the people for good. This paper shall diasect Oluwole-Ogba Community using the Theatre for Development method in order to gauge the level of Quality Assurance in that community.

Keywords: Quality Assurance, Theatre, Theatre for Development. Interrogative Tool.  

 ACQUISITION OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION SKILLS A WEAPON FOR WOMEN LIBERATION.

C.  C.  Anyanwu.

Department Of Business Education, School of Vocational Education,

Federal College of Education, Yola

Adamawa State.

 Abstract

This paper examines the place of Entrepreneurship in Vocational and Technical Education as a tool for eradicating poverty and unemployment in Nigeria particularly amongst women.  It briefly defines Entrepreneurship, Vocational and Technical Education (VTE), poverty, unemployment and women.  It identifies the causes of poverty and unemployment among women as low level of education, religions, and socio-cultural beliefs.  It also enumerates the ways in which entrepreneurship in Vocational and Technical Education can assist the women to fight against poverty and unemployment.  Suggestions were made on how to improve the lot of women through entrepreneurship in Vocational and Technical Education with conclusion that all hands have to be on deck to make women more functional and more productive economically.

KEY WORDS:- Entrepreneurship, Education, Poverty and Unemployment.

 EFFECT OF PROBLEM-SOLVING MODELS ON THE PERFORMANCE AND RETENTION OF STUDENTS IN SOLVING QUANTITATIVE PROBLEMS IN CHEMISTRY

(1) E.A. Okoh and N.E.U. Inyang(2)

(1)Department of Science Technology, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic,  Ikot Osurua, P.M.B. 1200, Ikot Ekpene

(2)Department of Science Education

University of Uyo,

 Abstract

The effect of problem-solving models on the performance and retention of students in solving quantitative problems in chemistry was the focus of this study. The design for the study was a pre-test, post-test non-randomized control group type. Population for the study comprised all the Senior Secondary 2 Chemistry students in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria with a sample size of 120 students drawn from three intact classes in three randomly selected co-educational schools in the study area. Instruments used in gathering data for the study were the chemistry Quantitative problem-solving test (CQPST) used both as a pretest to test equality of groups before treatment, post test to assess the effect of treatment and as retention test after two weeks of treatment. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was established to be 0.79 using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) by a test re-test approach. Three validated teaching packages were also used based on the three problem solving models adopted in the study. Treatment of quantitative problems was delimited to quantitative electrolysis data generated during the study were analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA). It was observed that significant difference exist in the performance of students within the three treatment groups. And the group taught quantitative problem using the Search Solve Create Share (SSCS) problem-solving model performed higher than those taught using Selvarantnam - Frazer problem solving model (SPSM). The SSCS problem-solving model has greater facilitative effect on retention than the other two problem-solving models. It should therefore, be adopted for use by the Chemistry teachers and the authors and the Algorithm Problem Solving Model (APSM)

Key Words: Problem-Solving Models, Quantitative-Problems, Retention, Performance.

THE ROLE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION TOWARDS NATIONAL SECURITY,

  1.  J.  Olatunji

Department of Business Education,

Federal College of Education,

Yola Adamawa State.

 Abstract

This paper focuses on the role of business Education towards national security.  Business education is a domain that educate and train individual to acquire skills, attitudes and knowledge to become self reliant.  If well taught in our schools the tendency of violent, youth unemployment and unrest, poverty and thuggery will be a thing of the past.  Thus leading to peaceful society.  With National Policy on Education empowering on these roles, Business education has the capacity to delivered Nigeria into a committee of developed nations in the nearest future.

Key word: Business Education, National Security.

 

 

                                                     EFFECTIVENESS OF THE ADAMAWA STATE POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMME (GSEEP)

M.  H.  Umar (1),   F. Jibrin (2)  

(1)Department of Agric. Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture

Taraba State University,  Jalingo.  Taraba State.

(2 Department Of Home Economics Education, School of Vocational Education,

Federal College of Education Yola

Adamawa State Yola.

Abstract

This paper examines the effectiveness of the Adamawa state Grassroots Socio-economic Empowerment programme (GSEEP) aimed at alleviating poverty among the women folk in the state. Poor women were identified and employed as special assistance to the Governor with N10,000 as motivating salary to attend 12 months compulsory training to acquire a skill for self reliant. 315 women from Yola North and Yola South local government areas were studied to determine how they became participants, level of skill acquired, ability to use the free materials given at the end of the training to set up their own business and the difference in the participants levels of income before and after participation. Findings of the study reveals that all the women were poor, attended training and were giving equipments to set up their business but only 80% were able to set up a business with 300% increase in level of their income after participation and recommendation were also proffered.

Key words: Motivation, Bankruptcy, Redundancy, Alleviation

 

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