PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND IN VITROANTIBACTERIAL EVALUATION OF THE CRUDE PERICARP EXTRACT OF HYPHAENE THEBAICA (DOUMPALM)

Mohammed Shaibu Auwal1*, Umar Kyari Sandabe1, Abdulnasir Tijjani2, Fatima Abba Lawan2, Abdullahi Shuaibu3, Ismail Alh Mairiga4, Kyari Abba Sanda1, Abdulhamid Baba Njobdi5

*1Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

2Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

3Department of Human Anatomy, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

4Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

5Department of Animal Health and Production, College of Agriculture Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria.

 Abstract

The Preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial evaluation of crude pericarp extract of Hyphaene thebaica (doumpalm) was ascertained. The crude pericarp powder of the plant was extracted for phytochemical screening by reflux method. The phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes and terpinoids in low and moderate concentrations. The crude pericarp extract of this plant exhibited activity on some gram positive and negative laboratory bacterial isolates such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae and the rest of the organisms were resistant to the extract. The effect of Hyphaene thebaica aqueous pericarp extract on gram positive and negative laboratory isolates indicates broad spectrum antibacterial activity. Most of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to all the concentrations of the extract used in this research except salmonella typhi that showed resistance at the concentration of 200 mg / ml. The minimum inhibitory concentration for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Salmonella typhi is 25 mg / ml while that for Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae is 50 mg / ml. All the laboratory isolates has a minimum bactericidal concentration of 50 mg / ml. This finding concludes that Hyphaene thebaica (doumpalm) pericarp extract have some important bioactive principles that can be used as a therapeutic agent in the inhibition of these pathogenic organisms that are incriminated in the causation of various disease in humans and animals.        

Keywords: Phytochemistry, Antibacterial, Bacteria Isolates, Crude Pericarp Extract, Hyphaene  Thebaica, 

 

 

 

 

MECHANISMS OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE: A REVIEW

* E.O.  Adawaren1 ., Y. A  Geidam2 .,  H.  Usman3 ., U. K Sandabe1.

1Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State ,Nigeria

2Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

3Department of Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

           Abstract

 The emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms is a major public health concern, particularly in hospitals and other health care settings. Antibiotic-resistant organisms appear to be biologically fit and are capable of causing serious, life-threatening infections that are difficult to manage because treatment options are limited. This increase in the prevalence of drug-resistant pathogens is occurring at a time when the discovery and development of new anti-infective agents is slowing down dramatically and most of the new agents are synthetic relatives of the older ones. Consequently, there is concern that in the not-too-distant future, we may be faced with a growing number of potentially untreatable infections.

Key words: Antibiotic, Resistance, Emergenc, drug-resistant pathogens

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 EFFECT OF CO-ADMINISTRATION OF AGERATUM CONYZOIDES AND ACALYPHA INDICA ON SERUM AST, ALT, ALP, TOTAL PROTEIN, ALBUMIN AND GLOBULIN IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS.

Useh, M. P., Akpan, M. O and Okoh E. A.

Department of Science Technology, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic

Ikot Osurua, Ikot Ekpene

Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Abstract

The effect of co-administration of Ageratum conyzoides and Acalypha indica on serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkanline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, albumin and globulin levels of albino wistar rats was studied Graded doses of extract (250, 500 and 1000mg/kg body weight respectively) were administered to the rats for fourteen days. At the end serum AST, ALT, ALP, total protein, albumin, and globulin were assayed using standard analytical procedures. The result revealed that there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the ALT level in Group I and a slight increase in groups II and III respectively when compared with the normal control group IV. The AST level decreased non significantly (p>0.05) in all the test groups compared with the control group. The ALP level also increased in group II and III significantly (p<0.05) compared to group I and the control group. The total protein showed a non-significant (p>0.05) increase in all the test groups compared with the control group. Also albumin and globulin levels showed non significant difference (p>0.05) in all the test groups compared with the control group.

Keywords: Ageratum, Conyzoides, Catabolism, Alnumin, Globulin and Membrane    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ACUTE TOXICITY AND EFFECT OFETHANOLIC EXTRACT OFCURCUMA LONGA ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL OF NORMAL RATS

 *Ojo, N. A1., Sanusi, F1., Adawaren, E.O1., Tijjani, M. B1., Igwenagu, I2 ., Badau, S. J2 ., Ndahi, J. J3., Auwal, M. S1 and Simon, J1.

1 Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

2Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

3Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

 Abstract

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberacea. It is native to tropical south Asia and needs temperature between 200C -300C (680F and 860F) and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthly, slightly bitter, slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. In both in-vitro and animal studies, curcumin has shown anti-tumor, antioxidant, antiarthritic, antiamyloid, antiischaemic and anti-inflammatory properties.Ethanolic extract of Curcuma longarhizomewas investigated for toxicity and effect on blood glucose level in albino rats. Elemental and phytochemical screenings were done using standard laboratory procedures. Lorke’s method was used to evaluate the acute oral toxicity of the plantusing twelve rats. Administration of 2900 mg/kg maximum dose did not produce mortality or general signs of toxicity for 24 hours. The hypoglycaemic study was carried out using 20 rats divided into groups A, B, C, and D. Groups B, C and D were treated orally using 200mg, 400mg and 600mg/kg of the extract while group A received distilled water for 18 hrs. A drop of blood from the tail vein of the rats was applied to the test spot of one touch glucose meter for blood glucose determination. Data obtained were analyzed and expressed as Mean ± Standard Deviation. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrate, soluble starch, anthraquinone, cardiac glycosides, saponin glycosides, terpenoids and flavonoids. The elemental analysis revealed the presence of chlorine, potassium, sodium, sulphur, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, lead and copper. The median lethal dose of the plant was greater than 2900 mg/kg body weight. The ethanolic extract did not cause death or signs of toxicity in the rats but significantly ( p<0.01) decreased blood glucose. In conclusion, Curcuma longashowed a wide safety margin and significant hypoglycemic effect in rats.

Key words: Acute Toxicity, Curcuma Longa, Blood glucose, Rats

 

 

 SHORT TERM EFFECTS OF CHLOROQUINE ON THE STEREOLOGY OF THE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS LIVER

 Akinribido F.A., Okanlawon O.A and Yama O.E

Dept  Department of Biological Sciences, Bells University of Technology Ota, Ogun State
Dept Of Anatomy,College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos State

  Abstract

 Significant binding of chloroquine occurs in the liver, kidney and spleen (Taylor and Francis 1987).For a very short period of three days, ten male rats were exposed to chloroquine phosphate injection intraperitoneally /IP) for three days. The treated rats received 0.125ml/100g body weight of chloroquine phosphate injection intraperitoneally. Control rats received the same amount of normal saline intraperitoneally.Stereologically, the parameters measured for the liver was compared with controls. The estimated absolute volume V =Vv (structure) x v (ref) of the blood vessels of the fractions was determined and compared. In the liver chloroquine caused a reduction in theabsolute volume of the blood vessels when compared with controls.

 Keywords: Chloroquine, Liver, Sprague-Dawley Rats, Stereology.

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 NUTRITIVE AND PHYTOCHEMICAL CONTENTS OF SEEDS AND OIL   EXTRACT OF DETARIUM MICROCARPUM (OFOR)

 *Okoh, Etim Akpan and Abasiekong, B. O.

 Department of Science Technology

 Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic

Ikot Osurua – Ikot Ekpene

 

 Abstract

 

Air-dried Detarium microcarpum seeds were bought from Aba new market in Abia State, Nigerian and brought to Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic Botanical Laboratory for identification. The sample were pulverized into coarse power and divided into two portions, one portion was grind into power and digested for analysis using standard procedures. The other portion was fixed in a soxhlet apparatus for 8 hours to extract the seed oil using petroleum ether at (40-600C) as a solvent. Oil extracted was used to determine some physiochemical properties of the seed oil. On analysis, the seeds of the D. microcarpium show high content of carbohydrate 58+ 0.01%; crude protein 13.40 + 0.04%, crude fat 18.50 + 0.03%, fibre 5.6 + 0.01% and vitamin C content 65.82 + 0.03%. The seed sample contain high amount of Calcium 5.75 + 0.02 (mg/100g); Potassium 16.0 + 0.20 (mg/100g); Magnesium 17.0 + 0.10 (mg/100g) and low values of Zinc 0.33 + 0.010 (mg/100g) and copper 0.15 + 0.03 (mg/100g). The physiochemical properties of the oil were also determined. The free fatty acid, saponification, peroxide, iodine and Ester values were 0.11 mgkOH/g; 199 + 0.57 mgkoH/g; 1.62 + 0.01 milliEqui/kg; Iodine value 120.75 + 0.21 (g/iodine/100g) and Ester value 198.77 + 0.56 mgkOH/g. Thereby being adequate for consumption, industrial and pharmaceutical applications.

Keywords: Nutrition, Phytochemical, Seeds and Oil, Detarium microcarpium

 

 

 

EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS LEAVES ON RBC COUNT, PCV AND HB CONCENTRATION IN ALBINO RATS

1Ojo, N. A., 1Adawaren, E. O., 1Tijjani, M.B., 1 Chongmobmi, M., 1 Ladan, M. K., 1Simon, J., 2Ndahi, J.J. and 1Bargu, J.S.

1Department of Veterinary Physiology,

Pharmacology And Biochemistry,

University of Maiduguri

2Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology

University of Maiduguri

Abstract

Telfairia occidentalis is a tropical vine grown in West Africa. It is highly reputed in traditional medicine. It is extensively cultivated in southern Nigeria especially by the Igbo tribe. It is dioecious, perennial and drought tolerant, and is usually grown trellised.  Ethanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalis was investigated for toxicityand effect on red blood cell count (RBC), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), and Hemoglobin concentration (Hb) in albino rats. Phytochemical screening and elemental analysis were carried out using standard procedures.Lorke’s method was used to evaluate the acute oral toxicity of T.occidentalis using twelve rats. Administration of 3200 mg/kg maximum dose did not produce mortality or general signs of toxicity for 24 hours. The subacute toxicity study was carried out on 20 rats divided into 4 groups of five rats each (i.e A, B, C, and D). GroupB, C and D were treated orally with the ethanolic extract using 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg respectively for 21days while group A received distilled water (ad-libitum) as control group. Blood samples were collected at the end of every week and analyzed for RBC, PCV and Hb concentration using standard procedures. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids. The elemental analysis revealed the presence of sodium, sulphur, chlorine, iron, zinc, manganese and potassium. No death or signs of toxicity were noticed in the rats but there were significant increases (P<0.05, P<0.01) in the PCV and hemoglobin concentration values. Ethanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalisleaves could be said to have low toxicity and significantly increased RBC,PCV and hemoglobin concentration values in rats.

Key words: Telfairiaoccidentalis, Ethanolic extract, Toxicity, RBC PCV, Hb concentration.

 

 

 

 

 

 

MITIGATING CLIMATE CHANGES USING POTTED PLANTS

 Alimi Silifat Faramade

Department of Biology,

Federal College of Education

Yola – Adamawa State.

 Abstract

Climate changes, consequently, global warming is real. Therefore there is need to evolve effective eco-forming system to mitigate it. First among all strategies is to identify the causes and to be able to mitigate is to have climate-smart intelligence (knowledge of vulnerability, coping, adaptation and attitudinal changes). As one of the major cause is deforestation for agriculture, urbanization and industrialization. Thus, this study was undertaken to assess the possibility of using pots to raised plants in order to combat climate changes. This study was conducted in the research garden of the Federal College of Education, Yola, Adamawa State of Nigeria from 1st June, 2013 to 31st August, 2014. Twenty (20) wooden nursery boxes measuring 1.50 x 1.50 feet were constructed. The bottom and the top were left opened to allowed contact with the soil and the top to permit irrigation. Twenty (20) same size of the box were made on the bare soil. The boxes were filled with soil and the bare soil areas were made into bed using same soil. Both experimental units were randomly placed at 5 x 5 metres with same area, watered and allowed to settle for 7 days and ten (10) seeds of Moringa oleifera were planted in each experimental unit. After plants emergence, plants were thin to three per unit and latter to one (1). During the period of the experiment, no agrochemical was applied but the units were sufficiently watered using water can. Data collected were analyzed using ANOVA and means compared using least significant difference (LSD) at P=0.05. Results showed that the degree of morphological appearances in both experimental units, plants of potted experiment are more desirable. Secondly, greater plant emergence, soil chemical properties and plant height were better in the potted experimental units compared to those of control units. Therefore, potted plants are hereby recommended for the raising and to grow plants in the study area to mitigate climate change, thus the global warming.  

Keywords: Climate-Smart, Vulnerability, Deforestation, Global Warming, Green House Gases, Mitigate

RESIDUAL EFFECT OF MINERAL FERTILIZER AND ORGANO-MINERAL FERTILIZER ON A DEGRADED SOIL PLANTED TO MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) PRODUCTION

1Aribisala, L..A.,1 Bello, W. B., 2Adebisi, A.A and 1Olla, N.O.

1Department of Agricultural Technology, 2Department of Forestry Technology Oyo State College of Agriculture and Technology, P.M.B 10, Igbo-ora Oyo State Nigeria.

Abstract                                                                     

Experiments were conducted during the 2007 and 2008 rainy season (May –September) at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ibadan, SouthWestern Nigeria, to evaluate the residual effect of Mineral and Organo-Mineral fertilizers on growth and yield of Maize using different methods of application. ACR.91 SWAN1 maize variety was used as the test crop. A randomized complete block design was used with 11 treatments namely: control (no fertilizer), 2 and 1 t/ha-urea amended and unammended compost (buried and surface of Grade A and B), 6.7 and3.4t/ha (buried and surface of Grade A and B), N.P.K (300kg/ha-l, buried and surface) and replicated three times. Data were analysed using ANOVA and the means were separated using Duncan multiple range test. Result showed that OMF B1(buried) at 6.7t/ha gave the best performance in all characters observed with grain yield of 5.60tha-l followed by OMFA1 (buried) with 5.32tha-l. The buried methods of OMFB1, OMFA1 and NPK gave 5.60t/ha, 5.32t/ha and 2.99t/ha when compared with surface methods that followed the same trend with 4.10//t/ha , 4.15t/ha-1 and 2.40t/ha grain yield respectively with full dose. Organo-mineral fertilizer grade B performed better than the grade A at full dose which produced yields of 3.93t/ha and 2.38t/ha while NPK gave 1.90t/ha respectively. Half dose followed the same trend as shown in the full doses of grade A and B. The use of organic unammended fertilizer (OMFB1) gave a better result in residual maize growth and yield parameters compared to that of the control which grain yield of (2.10t/ha).  Residual nutrients of OMFB1 (buried) sustained maize plant growth and had yields, which were 62.5% higher than the control.

Key Words: N.P.K, Organo-Mineral, Buried, Surface And Residual, Maize

CLIMATIC EFFECTS ON MICROBIAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BIOSTIMULATED CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATED SOIL IN SOUTHERN NIGERIA.

1Etukudoh, N. E., 2Chuckumati, J.A and 3Ipadeola S. A.

Department of Crop/Soil Science, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5080, Port Harcourt, 2 Department of Soil ScienceUniversity of  Port Harcourt,3 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ibadan.

Abstract

These studies were conducted in Port Harcourt between 1/2 - 9/3/2011 at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Onne which lies at Latitude 4’51oN and Longitude 7’ 05oE on an elevation of 10 metres above sea level with an annual temperature which varied from 250C in July to 270C in February, and in the Teaching and Research Farm of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology which have annual temperature of latitude 4’50 0N and 7’ 100E on elevation of 18 metres above sea level to assess the effects of climate changes on microbial and physicochemical properties of crude Oil Spill soil amended with fresh water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) organic materials. Top Soil (0 – 15cm) was escavated at crude oil spill site at Korokoro, in Tai, Rivers State of Niger Delta for the experiments. The soil was kept for seven days to enable it settled, then amended with 15tha-1 ground fresh water hyacinth tissues. Three (3) kilograms of the amended soil were transferred into perforated 25 x 30 x25cm3 polybags and randomly arranged in the study areas in four replicates. Results indicated that the application or organic material resulted in the decrease in the studied soil pH from 5.70 to 5.20. The highest Oc % (2.54), C;N ratio(19.53), Available phosphorus(128mg/kg), K (1.89), Ca (3.29), Mg (1.56) and Excharge acidity (1.10cmol) were obtained in the Nkpolu soil samples.Onne soil samples had higher pH(5.93),total N(0.16%),Percent base saturation(87.75%).lower C/N ratio(10.31) and higher hereterotrophic bacterial counts range(5.20-30x105 cfu/g soil). Onne site can generally be regarded as having better soil fertility indexes as compared to that of Nkpolu sites.

 

 


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