VARIABILITY OF PROPERTIES OF SOME PEDONS ON BASEMENT COMPLEX OF SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA.

*Akinbola G. E.,* Ojo U.A. and **Adigun M. O.

*Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria

**Department of Crop Production, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria

Abstract

A Semi-detailed soil survey of a 540.44ha land in Ede, Osun State, Nigeria was executed to assess the effect of variability distribution of certain chemical and physical properties on the potential agricultural productivity of the soils. The soils of the area were primarily formed from Granite Gneiss parent rocks and are generally sandy. Ten mapping units belonging to three taxonomic soil orders (Alfisol, Inceptisols and Entisols) and ten soil series were identified. The soil properties were subjected to statistical analytical process of dispersion for proper understanding of the extent of variability of the soils and the implication for enhanced management for improved and sustainable crop production. All the properties assessed were significantly different (P<0.05) among the soil types. Magnesium was found to be most variable while exchangeable acidity, effective cation exchange capacity(ECEC), manganese, iron, zinc and total nitrogen were the least varied (P<0.05). Principal component analysis indicated that ECEC accounted for at least 51% of the variations in the soils. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis does not prove to be an effective instrument for studying the soils’ variability and for grouping similar soils for management purposes.

Keywords: Mapping units, Soil orders, Parent rocks, Pedons, Basement complex

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VEHICULAR CONTAMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN SOME

ROADSIDE SOILS IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA.

Foby, I.B. and G.A. Ayolagha

Department of Crop/Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Rivers state University of     Science and Technology, P.M.B 5080,Port Harcourt, Rivers State

 Department of Crop/Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State.

 Abstract

 A study was carried out along four interstate highways linking Port Harcourt, the Rivers State capital and other roads, as well as two other remote roads. This was to assess the contamination of heavy metals on roadside soils. Vehicle flow enumeration results ranged from 57 to 2732 per hour. Two hundred and sixteen soils samples were collected at the distance of 5m, 20m and 50m away from the roads, and at two depths of 0-15cm and 15-30cm.The total heavy metal concentration for the soil samples were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Mean concentration of various metal ranges were: lead. 6.76 to 31.82 (µg/g), cadmium 0.14 to 0.67 (µg/g), copper 1.85 to 1323 (µg/g), Nickel 0.80 to 3.42 (µg/g) and zinc 4.68 to 27.9 (µg/g), for soils. The result showed that heavy metal concentration decreased as the distances increased farther away from the roads. The concentration also decreased with increase in the depth of sampling. There were significant difference using F-test (P70.05) between traffic volume and mean concentration of heavy metals in the soil. The paired T (test) comparison between concentration of heavy metals of samples collected at two depth of 0.15cm and 15.30cm were significantly different.

KEYWORD: Vehicular, Contamination, Environmental Pollution, Heavy Metals, Traffic Density; Roadside.

 

 

 

 

EFFECT OF EXTRA LIGHTING AT NIGHTFALL ON EGG PRODUCTION BY EXOTIC BREED (NERA BLACK) LAYERS REARED IN NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA

Ikperite S.E.1 and Kperegbeyi J.I 1

1 School of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Technology,

Delta State Polytechnic, P.M.B.5, Ozoro.

 Abstract

A 31-day lighting programme was carried out to investigate the effect of extra lighting in laying house on egg production. A total of one hundred (100) Nera Black layers of thirty (30) weeks of age were used for the study. They were allotted to two treatments consisting of five replicates of ten birds each. Treatment 1, served as the control which received no extra lighting and treatment 2 received extra lighting. The results showed that there were significantly differences (P< 0.05) in feed intake, hen day production (HDP), egg size, feed per dozen eggs and mortality of birds that received extra lighting. The highest mean values in all the parameters studied were recorded in treatment 2 for the layer group which received extra lighting while the lowest mean values were recorded in treatment 1 for the control group which did not receive extra lighting. The highest and lowest mean values for the different parameters were; feed intake (133.40g and 123.60g); HDP (61.70% and 40.40%);egg size (56.0g and 38.5g); feed per dozen eggs  (2.16kg and 1.72kg) and mortality (20% and 4 %) respectively for the two experimental groups. In conclusion, exposing layers to extra light enhances egg production but it goes with associated problems of prolapse and death if exposure to extra light is too long. Therefore, it is recommended that extra lighting may be provided for not more than 3 hours per day after nightfall because layers subjected to longer lighting period may be prone to prolapse and even death.

Key words: Extra Lighting, feed intake, egg production, prolapse, Nera black, mortality.

 

 

 

 

 

 

COMPARING THE PERFORMANCE OF A CONSTRUCTED SOLAR RADIATION  METER AT ABAKALIKI AND THE SOLARIMETER AT UNN, NIGERIA

Udeajah, Victoria Ndidiamaka,

EBONYI STATE UNIVERSITY, ABAKALIKI

Abstract

The comparative assessment of the functionality of a constructed  solar radiation meter in Abakaliki have been investigated through its output got from measurement of the global solar radiation  for five years (2007 till 2012).  The measurement in millivolts were converted to watt per metre square (W/m2) using 73millivolts being equal to 1000watts.  The reading of the locally made solar radiation meter was compared with the standard , einstralnagssensor spektron 100 solarimeter at the University of  Nigeria, Nsukka through simultaneous reading taking  process. The solar radiation meter was made by coupling a locally available solar panel with switch , light emitting diode (LED)and two meters connected in series.   The output for the randomly selected days  were analysed statistically using the student’s t-distribution and curve fitting methods and average calibration constant got too.  Seven days were picked randomly within  a month and analysed using 95 per cent confidence interval in a two tailed  test of 0.025 and they were acceptable.   It showed that the locally fabricated solar radiation meter could comfortably compete with the standard solarimeter since the deviations were rather negligible.

 

 

 

 

 

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND IN VITROANTIBACTERIAL EVALUATION OF THE CRUDE PERICARP EXTRACT OF HYPHAENE THEBAICA (DOUMPALM)

 Mohammed Shaibu Auwal1*, Umar Kyari Sandabe1, Abdulnasir Tijjani2, Fatima Abba Lawan2, Abdullahi Shuaibu3, Ismail Alh Mairiga4, Kyari Abba Sanda1, Abdulhamid Baba Njobdi5

*1Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

2Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

3Department of Human Anatomy, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

4Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

5Department of Animal Health and Production, College of Agriculture Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

The Preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial evaluation of crude pericarp extract of Hyphaene thebaica (doumpalm) was ascertained. The crude pericarp powder of the plant was extracted for phytochemical screening by reflux method. The phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes and terpinoids in low and moderate concentrations. The crude pericarp extract of this plant exhibited activity on some gram positive and negative laboratory bacterial isolates such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae and the rest of the organisms were resistant to the extract. The effect of Hyphaene thebaica aqueous pericarp extract on gram positive and negative laboratory isolates indicates broad spectrum antibacterial activity. Most of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to all the concentrations of the extract used in this research except salmonella typhi that showed resistance at the concentration of 200 mg / ml. The minimum inhibitory concentration for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Salmonella typhi is 25 mg / ml while that for Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae is 50 mg / ml. All the laboratory isolates has a minimum bactericidal concentration of 50 mg / ml. This finding concludes that Hyphaene thebaica (doumpalm) pericarp extract have some important bioactive principles that can be used as a therapeutic agent in the inhibition of these pathogenic organisms that are incriminated in the causation of various disease in humans and animals.        

Keywords: Phytochemistry, Antibacterial, Bacteria Isolates, Crude Pericarp Extract, Hyphaene  Thebaica.

 

 

 

 

 

 ECOLOGICAL BEHAVIOURS AND MORPHOMETRIC FEATURES OF WEST AFRICAN MANATEE: TRICHECHUS SENEGALENSIS IN A SEMI-WILD

environment of Akwa Ibom state.

Akpan U. A., Egwali, E.C., and Esenowo I. K.

Department of Zoology, P.M.B. 1017, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom.

Abstract 

The present study was on the ecological behaviours and morphometric features of West Africa manatee; Trichechus senegalensis, in a semi-wild environment in Akwa Ibom state and the study was conducted for 5 months; July 2008 to November 2008. The ecological behaviours of the manatee with corresponding time interval in the environment were observed and recorded using focal animal sampling method and a Diamond mechanical stopwatch. Linear and girth measurements, and body weight were recorded using measuring tape, Digital vernier caliper and weighting balance. Surface water samples were collected from the water flowing through the canal, to determine the quality of the water for the survival of the manatee. Mean time for the following ecological behaviours, bottom rest behaviour, 4.05min; feeding and surface for air, 2.35mins; rest and surface for air, 3.55 min and slow swimming, 1.40 min, were recorded. Eleven macrophytes belonging to eight families from the environment were sampled to survey the plants the manatee can forage on in the environment. Mean values of surface water temperature of 26.56±1.08oC; pH, 6.47±0.25; Free carbon dioxide, 8.83±1.44mgdm-3 ; total alkalinity, 10.35±1.85mgdm-3  ; Dissolved Oxygen, 7.35±1.42 mgdm-3  and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) 2.41±0.47 mgdm-3  were recorded. The morphometric features of the manatee; Trichechus senegalensis, are  total length 192cm, standard length 152cm, body weight 265kg, fluke width 36cm, flipper length 36cm, head length 34cm, girth at umbilicus 120cm, girth at genital pore 82cm, girth at anus 64cm. The results indicate that the environment provides favourable conditions for the survival of the manatee.

 Key Words: Trichechus Senegalensis, Ecological Behaviours And Time, Morphometric Features And Semi-Wild Environment.     

 

COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI AND DFMO (DIFLUORO METHYL ORNITHINE) ON HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND BODY WEIGHTS IN WISTAR STRAIN ALBINO RATS

Abdulhamid Baba Njobdi1, Mohammed Shaibu Auwal2, Nicholas Adetayo Ojo2, Muhammad Mustapha3, Jibrin Suleiman Bargu4, Abdullahi Shuaibu5 and Ismail Alhaji Mairiga3 1Department of Animal Health, College of Agriculture Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria.

2Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 

3Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

     4Department of Human Anatomy, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

 5Department of Animal Health and Production, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

 Abstract

The aim and objectives of this research is to study the effects of T. brucei and Difluoromethyl ornithine (DFMO) on parked cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood cells (RBC) count and body weights in wistar strain albino rats. Twenty healthy wistar albino rats were used and divided into four experimental groups (A, B, C, and D) of five rats each. Feed and water were provided ad libitum to the experimental rats. Rats in Group A were used as a control.  Rats in group B were intraperitoneally inoculated with 5.0 x 105/µL of T. brucei (Gboko strain, Benue State, Nigeria), while rats in group C were orally administered 2% (20 mg / ml) difluoro methyl ornithine (DFMO) W/V at the dose of (400 mg /kg) on daily basis for 21 days. The rats in group D were infected with 5 x 105/µL of T. Brucei and treated with oral doses of 2% (20 mg / ml) difluoro methyl ornithine (DFMO) at the dose of (400mg /kg) W/V on daily bases for 21 days. Packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood cells (RBC) count and weights of the rats were determined at 3 days interval for 21 days post-infection. Decrease in PCV, RBC, Hb concentration and progressive weight loss was noticed in T. brucei infected, difluoro methyl ornithine (DFMO) treated and T. brucei infected and treated rats as from day 6 post-infection (Pi). Treatment of trypanosomosis with difluoro methyl ornithine (DFMO) is found to have deleterious effect on PCV, RBC, Hb concentration of wistar strain albino rats manifesting in progressive loss of body weight, culminating in mortality in some of the experimental rats. Application of difluoro methyl ornithine in the treatment of trypanosomosis in livestock should therefore be done with caution, particularly in the treatment of chronic cases. Conclusively, this research have shown that treatment of trypanosomosis with Difluoro methyl ornithine causes  decrease in packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood cells (RBC) count and body weight in wistar strain albino rats.       

 Keywords: Comparative studies, Body weights, DFMO, T. brucei, Albino rats

 

 

 

 

 


THE PERFORMANCE OF WEST AFRICAN DWARF (WAD) GOATS FED BAMBOO LEAVES, GUINEA GRASS AND CONCENTRATE

IKPERITE STEPHEN1 .E. and J.I KPEREGBEYI1

1Department of Agricultural Technology, Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro, Delta State Nigeria.

Abstract

20 West African Dwarf (WAD) goats were randomly allocated to 4 treatments in which the nutrient composition of bamboo leaves, guinea grass and a concentrate and the performance of the goats fed the diets containing varying levels of the feedstuffs ad-libitum were studied. The treatments (diets) were: bamboo leaves alone (T1); 75% bamboo leaves + 25% guinea grass (T2); 50% bamboo leaves + 50% guinea grass (T3) and guinea grass + concentrate (T4 the control) at the Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro, for 12 weeks using the completely randomized experimental design (CRD). The parameters studied were: feed intake, nutrient digestibility and growth rate of WAD goats. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significantly different means were detected by the use of Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). Proximate analysis revealed that bamboo leaves contain nutrients to adequately meet the nutrient requirements of the WAD goats but the feed intake and nutrient digestibility values were very low. However, the use of any combination of bamboo leaves and guinea grass studied in this work is recommended for dry season feeds for WAD goats because they promoted varying body weight gains in the different groups.

Key words: Adequate nutrients, Low feed intake, Low nutrients digestibility and Dry season feeds.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

EVALUATION OF AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS OF SESAME (Sesamum indicum  L.) GROWN AT VARYING LEVELS OF NPK FERTILIZER AND SPACINGS

Usman, B.D., Jakusko, B.B.  and Sajo, A.A.

Department of crop production and Horticulture, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

Abstract

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) has been cultivated since ancient times as oilseed crop in the hotter and drier parts of Africa and Asia. In Nigeria, low yield is obtained as a result of poor agronomic practices among others, discourage growers. Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the agronomic characters of Sesame grown at varying levels of NPK fertilizer and row spacing. The field trials were conducted in 2009 and 2010 rainy seasons at the teaching and research farm of the Departments of Crop Production and Horticulture, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola. The treatments consisted of three row spacings (60 x 15cm, 60 x 10cm and 75 x 10cm) and three NPK rates (200, 300 and 400 kgha) which was was laid out in a split plot design replicated three times with plot size 3m x 2m. Parameters measured include establishment count at two weeks after sowing (2WAS), number of primary and secondary branches, days to 50% flowering, length of capsule, number of capsule per plant, 1000 –seed weight and yield per hectare (kgha­-1). Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (Anova) and means were separated using least significant different (LSD). Results obtained showed significant effects of row spacing and NPK rates on days to 50% flowering, , number of seed per capsule, length of capsule as well as seed yield/ha. The application of 200kgha and spacing of 75cm x 10cm resulted in higher seed yield/ha.

Key words: Agronomic characters, Sesame, row spacing, fertilizer, yield

 

 

 

 HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN AUTOMOBILE WASTE DUMPS IN PORT HARCOURT SOUTHERN NIGERIA

(1) Williams, Esther Samuel (2) Etukudoh, Ndarake Emmanuel (3) Wenibo Andrew

1, 2, 3, Department of Crop/Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Rivers State University of science and Technology, P.M.B 5080, Port Harcourt, Rivers State

Abstract

Waste generated by automobile industry are known to contained toxic chemicals (grease, acid, organic solvent, suspended solids, cyanide, heavy metals etc) which are hazardous to both plants and animals. These wastes are dumped in an environment without proper detoxification treatments. An objective of this study was to assess heavy metals concentrations in the automobile dump sites in the Port Harcourt metropolis. Results indicated a low soil pH ranges with the highest pH values obtained in the reference point (0-30cm) soil depth and a significant build-up  of lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), copper (W), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and Nickel (Ni) in the impact zone as compared to reference point at P<0.05s. Heavy metal concentrations were higher in the surface than in the subsurface soils and decrease with distance and in soil depth away from the impacted zones and positively correlated with pH. The highest Pb (614), Cu (424.20), Zn (505.25) and Ni (2010) were observed in mile 3 (MIT), while the highest Cd (46), Cr (21.60) were obtained at east west road (EWR) and in the Port Harcourt Township (PHT) respectively. This study suggests that peasants farming in the automobile waste dump sites should be totally discouraged because crops raised on the soil might have elevated concentrations of some these heavy metals.

Key words: Detoxification, Anthropogenic, Trace, Heavy, Metals, Remediation, Impact.

 

 

 

 

 

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