EFFECTS OF DEPO PROVERA ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS ASCENDING COLON

AkinribidoF.A, Duru F.I.O, Yama O.E

Dept  Department of Biological Sciences, Bells University of Technology Ota, Ogun State
Dept of Anatomy,College of Medicine,University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos State

 

Abstract

Depo-Provera inhibits follicular development and prevents ovulation in its  primary mechanism of action.The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare Effects of Depo Provera on the Morphology of  ascending colon as it is being used as a contraceptive. A single of Depo Provera contraceptive injection (150mg Medroxyprogesterone Acetate) intraperitoneally, at a dose of 75mg/ 100g body weight was given to ten matured Sprague Dawley rats daily for 10 days. Control matured Sprague Dawley rats of ten received the same amount of distilled water. After about 24hrs later, the rats were sacrificed, the rats ascending colon were assessed morphologically. Weight of treated ascending colon were compared with controls. Morphologically, Depo-Provera stimulated the ascending colon by causing increase in their weight. This shows that Depo Provera has ability to bind with other tissues causing changes in their morphology. The form and structure of any living being are not constant during the whole of its existence, but undergo a series of changes from the commencement of that existence to its end, living beings have a Development. The history of development is an account of the anatomy of a living being at the successive periods of its existence, and of the manner in which one anatomical stage passes into the next.

Keywords: Depo-Provera,Sprague Dawley Rats,Morphology, Ascending Colon

CODE MIXING: A STRATEGY FOR TRANSLATION EQUIVALENCE.

Celestina P. Kekai

Department of Foundations and General Studies, Delta State School of Marine Technology, Burutu

    

Abstract

The concurrent use of lexemes and structures of more than one language in a discourse is no longer new or an issue for debate. While some code-mixing may stem from achieving meaning and stylistic effect in a Source Language Text, others may be the result of difficulty in finding the exact lexical equivalence in a target language. An arduous task for the translation linguist thus, is to achieve the equivalence he so earnestly deserves in meaning and style without juxtaposing both source and target languages being the fact that the latter’s world view as against that of the former (following Linguistic relativity and determinism hypothesis) is quite distinct. The trust of the study therefore, is to examine code-mixing as a strategy for translation equivalence and the extent to which this is achieved in translatology, for where the meaning/style of the source text does not correspond with the target text, equivalence is hardly achieved and this leads to a communication gap as it becomes difficult for the target audience to decode the communicator’s intent as it were for the source text audience.

Key Words: Code-Mixing, Source Text, Code-Switching, Lexemes, Determinism, Ill-    Formedness.

MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN GREATER JOS, NIGERIA

1) Gwom Peter and 2) Ijeoma G.U. Ayuba

1)School of the Built Environment,

Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, United Kingdom

2)Department of Geography and Planning

Faculty of Environmental Science

University of Jos – Plateau State, Nigeria

Abstract

In Nigeria, municipal solid waste management is an integral part of the waste management system. The current status of municipal solid waste management in Jos, a rapidly growing urban city in Nigeria has been reviewed through literature and other relevant documents. In addition, information from supervised projects written by diploma and undergraduate students of the author have been used in this review of  municipal solid waste management problem in Jos. The problem is the existing municipal solid waste management system which is affected by unfavourable economic, institutional, legislative, technical and operational constraints. Despite recent improvements in the operations of the existing system through engagement of tasks force on environmental sanitation, municipal solid wastes are still dumped along roads, in culverts, drainage channels, underneath bridges and any available open spaces. A reliable municipal solid waste collection service that will be appropriate to local conditions is needed. Cooperation among the formal and informal sectors, communities, various stakeholders, good public awareness, attitudes and education is important. Markets for waste recyclable materials need to be encouraged. Small-scale composting plants could promote employment, income generation and poverty alleviation. Finally, recommendations for improvement include among others, policy and planning framework for municipal solid waste management, enforcing relevant clauses in development guidelines, accurate population data and funding for proper planning of waste management systems and infrastructure is necessary.

Key words: Jos, Municipal solid waste, Planning, Stakeholder, Resource recovery, Nigeria

EFFECT OF COPPER SULPHATE ON HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND INDICES IN RATS

 

* DIBILA, H.M1., TELTA, D1., OJO, N.A1., SIMON, J1., SAMBO, N3., SANDABE, U. K1. AND EGBE-NWIYI, T. N2.

1Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry,Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri.

2Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri.

3Department of Human Physiology, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri.

 

Abstract

A total of one hundred albino rats of both sexes were used for the experiment to determine the effect of copper sulphate on the red blood cell count(RBC), packed cell volume(PCV), haemoglobin concentration(Hb), mean corpuscular volume(MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin(MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration(MCHC). The experiment lasted for a period of twenty one days and then the animals where observed for two weeks for post treatment effect. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D of twenty five rats each. Five per cent (5%) concentration of copper sulphate was used. Graded doses of 25mg/kg, 50mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of copper sulphate were administered daily to groups A, B and C respectively by gastric intubation for a period of twenty one days. The rats in group D served as a control. Blood samples were collected for haematological parameters. The results of the investigations for the period of study on haematological parameters showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in RBC, Hb and PCV,(at dose 100mg /kg of copper sulphate on day 21 of the experiment), MCV, MCH and MCHC (all on days 14 and 21 of the experiment). During the withdrawal period there was also a significant (p<0.05) increase in RBC, Hb and PCV, but there was no significant (p<0.05) increase in MCV, MCH and MCHC. It may therefore be concluded that copper sulphate probably improves blood parameters of rats and thus probably acts as blood enhancer and haematinic.

Keywords: Copper Sulphate, Haematological Parameters, Indices, Rats

ACUTE TOXICITY AND EFFECT OF METHALONIC EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA YOUNG PODS ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN NON DIABETIC RATS

 

*Ojo, N. A1.,Usman, A.A1.,Sambo, N2., Madziga, H. A1.,Yahi, D1., Mbaya, Y.

P1.,Balogun, S. T3. and Nnennaya, C. C.4

1Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

 2 Department of Human Physiology, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri,

Borno State, Nigeria

3 Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medical Sciences,

University of Maiduguri,Borno State, Nigeria

4. Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Port

Harcourt. River State, Nigeria

 

Abstract

Methalonic extract of young pods of Moringaoleifera was investigated for acute toxicity and effect on blood glucose level in non diabetic rats. The aqueous extract was subjected to phytochemical and elemental analysis. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrate, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoid,anthraquinone and cardiac glycoside.The elemental analysis in part per million [PPM] concentration showed 5.00 for calcium,0.41 for potassium,0.34 for copper,0.31 for iron,0.26 for fluorine,0.19 for nickel,0.16 for zinc, 0.12 for manganese and 0.03 for chromium .The acute toxicity studies using Lorke’s method showed that the extract did not produce death in treated rats at 5000mg/kg thus indicating that the extract was well tolerated. Administration of the extract to the rats for 21days at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight, produced significant (P<0.05) decreases in the blood glucose levels of the treated rats. The significant hypoglycemic effect may be the justification for Moringaoleiferafolkoloric use as a potential hypoglycemic agent. In conclusion, Moringaoleiferayoung pods showed a significant hypoglycemic effect with very wide safety margin.

 Key words: Acute toxicity, methanolicextract, Moringaoleifera, young pods, glucose level,rats

 

THE AMBIGUOUS POWER OF SOCIAL MEDIA: HEGEMONY OR RESISTANCE?

 

Aborisade Philip Olubunmi, Ph.D., Senior lecturer/head of media and

communication program at Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

 

Recent developments have demonstrated the efficacy and effectiveness of social media as a veritable tool for mobilization and networking. Ordinary citizens rely on the power of social media to mobilize against sit-tight leaders. Oppressed citizens use social media to protest against bad government and anti-people’s policies. Based on the findings of a current research, this article discusses recent protests across the world and how citizens use social media during the protests to stay connected, plot strategies and circulate news to the rest of the world. The article concluded that; with citizen-reporters and social media, there is no hiding place or safe haven for sit-tight leaders and anti-people policies as citizens are better empowered than ever by emerging technologies to challenge the status quo. This paper therefore hypothesizes that the ambiguous power of social media has become a tool for resistance movements and hegemony as demonstrated at the protest sites around the world such as the 2014 Burkinabé Uprising, Occupy Wall Street, the Arab Spring, the chilean students’ protest, the Los Indignados movement, the Québec student’s strike and Idle no more in Canada etc,  

 

KEY WORDS: Social Media, New Technology, New media, Citizen Reporters, Democracy, Networking, Hegemony Resistance

 

THEORETICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF   SOME SELECTED SEMICONDUCTOR CRYSTAL QUANTITIES: SILICON AND GERMANIUM AT GROUND STATE LEVEL.

Michael Obende1 and Emmanuel Olagunju2

                          1,2Department of Physics, Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria

 

Abstract

Semiconductors are materials whose electronic properties are intermediate between those of metals and insulators. These intermediate properties are determined by the crystal structure, bonding characteristics and electronic energy band. This work compares some properties of semiconductors such as energy gaps, effective mass, radius of ground state orbit, donor ionization energy, and carrier concentration of Silicon and Germanium were computed from calculations of relevant band structures using density functional theory. The results showed that the energy of silicon and germanium has greater values compared to Indium Antimony and (InSb) Gallium Arsenide ( GaAs). Indium Antimony were in good agreement with experimental values. This work also revealed that germanium possessed considerable carrier concentration, radius of orbit and ionization energy over other selected semiconductor materials.

Keywords: Density Functional Theory, Semiconductor, Crystal , Quantities.

Effect of Different Mix Ratios of Rice Husk Ash Blended Cement Concrete on the Resistance to Sulphate Attack on Concrete

1Nura Hassan;  1Mohammed Ya’u; 1Jibrin Umar

1.   Department of Civil Engineering Technology

Federal Polytechnic Damaturu

Abstract

Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world, because of its availability and versatility. The increasing demand for the durable concrete that is environmentally friendly is growing by day. Rice husk ash proved to be one of the supplementary cementing materials that supplement cement and produce a durable concrete that is environmentally friendly. Sulphate attack on concrete makes the concrete to suffer from deterioration and becomes less durable. This paper investigates the effect of different mix ratios of rice husk ash blended cement on the resistance to sulphate attack on concrete. One hundred and eighty (180)of rice husk blended concrete cubes of grades 25, 30 and 35, with the nominal mix ratios of 1:2:4;  and 1:1:2 were cast and cured for 28 days. Later on, the cubes were immersed into water with 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%, concentrations of sulphuric acid (aggressive media). Twenty per cent(20%) replacement was used throughout the research work. The zero per cent (0%) concentration wasused as a control, so as to establish a basis for comparison of the effect of the aggressive media on the rice husk blended cement. Three cubes from each of the concentrations of the acid-water were tested for compressive strength at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of acid curing for each of the grades. It was observed that the richer the mix ratio of the cement-rice-husk-ash blending the better the resistance to sulphateattack. The statistical analysis of the data indicated that, the F-values of the compressive strengths of the concrete at 95% confidence limit are 6.48, 5.91, 5.59, 5.23 and 4.88 for 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of aggressive media curing respectively, these values are greater than 4.26. This indicated there is significant difference in resisting sulphate attack by different grades of concrete, that is, the richer the grade of concrete, the more resistance it offers to sulphate attack significantly.It was also observed that, the higher the concentration of the acid and the longer the period of curing in aggressive media, the higher the attack on the concrete.

Key Words: Concrete, Rice- husk- ash, Durability,  Aggressive-media, Grades of concrete

PERFORMANCE OF WEST AFRICAN DWARF (WAD) GOATS GRAZING UNDER OIL PALM PLANTATION IN NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA.

 

1Ikperite S.E and Kperegbeyi  J.I1

1 School of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Technology,

Delta State Polytechnic, P.M.B.5, Ozoro.

 

 

Abstract

 The study was designed to investigate the performance of West African Dwarf (WAD) Goats grazing under oil palm plantation. Twenty (20) WAD Goats about six months old were used for the study. They were allotted to two treatments consisting of two replicates of five Goats each. Treatment 1, served as the control with (WAD Goats were allowed to graze in a paddock under the canopy of an oil palm plantation). While treatment 2 contained group of WAD Goats were allowed to graze outside the oil palm plantation (the experimental area). Water were provided at all times. The study lasted for twelve weeks. The results indicated that the group of WAD Goats fed under the oil palm plantation (T1) made a significantly (P<0.05) higher mean daily weight gain value ( 9.85g) over the mean daily bodyweight gain value ( 7.74g) recorded for the WAD Goats which roam about grazing outside the oil palm trees canopy. The weed in the paddock under the plantation was very mush reduced. In conclusion, WAD Goats grow faster and control weeds if reared under oil palm plantation. The rearing of WAD Goats under the oil palm plantation is therefore recommended.

Key Words:  Grazing, Paddock, Oil Palm Plantation, Body Weight Gain , Weed Control.

EFFECTS OF DEPO PROVERA ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS DESCENDING COLON

1)Akinribido F.A, 2)Duru F.I.O and 3)Yama O.E

1)Dept  Department of Biological Sciences, Bells University of Technology Ota, Ogun State
2,3)Dept of Anatomy,College of Medicine,University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos State

 

Abstract

Depo-Provera inhibits follicular development and prevents ovulation in its  primary mechanism of action.The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare Effects of Depo Provera on the Morphology of  descending colon as it is being used as a contraceptive. A single of Depo Provera contraceptive injection (150mg Medroxyprogesterone Acetate) intraperitoneally, at a dose of 75mg/ 100g body weight was given to ten matured Sprague Dawley rats daily for 10 days. Control matured Sprague Dawley rats of ten received the same amount of distilled water. After about 24hrs later, the rats were sacrificed, the rats descending colon were assessed morphologically. Weight of treated descending colon were compared with controls. Morphologically, Depo-Provera stimulated the descending colon by causing decrease in their weight. This shows that Depo Provera has ability to bind with other tissues causing changes in their morphology. The form and structure of any living being are not constant during the whole of its existence, but undergo a series of changes from the commencement of that existence to its end, living beings have a Development. The history of development is an account of the anatomy of a living being at the successive periods of its existence, and of the manner in which one anatomical stage passes into the next.

Keywords: Depo-Provera, Sprague Dawley Rats, Morphology, Descending Colon

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