PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND IN VITROANTIBACTERIAL EVALUATION OF THE CRUDE PERICARP EXTRACT OF HYPHAENE THEBAICA (DOUMPALM)

 

Mohammed Shaibu Auwal1*, Umar Kyari Sandabe1, Abdulnasir Tijjani2, Fatima Abba Lawan2, Abdullahi Shuaibu3, Ismail Alh Mairiga4, Kyari Abba Sanda1, Abdulhamid Baba Njobdi5

*1Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

2Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

3Department of Human Anatomy, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

4Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

5Department of Animal Health and Production, College of Agriculture Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

The Preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial evaluation of crude pericarp extract of Hyphaene thebaica (doumpalm) was ascertained. The crude pericarp powder of the plant was extracted for phytochemical screening by reflux method. The phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes and terpinoids in low and moderate concentrations. The crude pericarp extract of this plant exhibited activity on some gram positive and negative laboratory bacterial isolates such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae and the rest of the organisms were resistant to the extract. The effect of Hyphaene thebaica aqueous pericarp extract on gram positive and negative laboratory isolates indicates broad spectrum antibacterial activity. Most of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to all the concentrations of the extract used in this research except salmonella typhi that showed resistance at the concentration of 200 mg / ml. The minimum inhibitory concentration for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Salmonella typhi is 25 mg / ml while that for Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae is 50 mg / ml. All the laboratory isolates has a minimum bactericidal concentration of 50 mg / ml. This finding concludes that Hyphaene thebaica (doumpalm) pericarp extract have some important bioactive principles that can be used as a therapeutic agent in the inhibition of these pathogenic organisms that are incriminated in the causation of various disease in humans and animals.        

Keywords: Phytochemistry, Antibacterial, Bacteria Isolates, Crude Pericarp Extract, Hyphaene  Thebaica, 

CAREGIVER’S COMPETENCY IN THE UTILIZATION OF THE INTEGRATED EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT (IECD) CURRICULUM

Aisha Kadiri M. and Yahaya Abdulraheed

Department of Early Childhood Care and Education

Federal College of Education. Yola

Abstract

One must recognize that anything worth doing must be done effectively and efficiently, caregiver’s competency in the utilization of ECCE curriculum was the topic designed for this research with the purpose of assessing the level of effective and efficient utilization of the curriculum design for pre-school children. Three research questions were objectively tested; sample respondents for the study were randomly selected among teachers of preschool in Adamawa state. Survey study was conducted using three instrumental methods for data collection. Average weighted response (TAWR) was the statistical technique employed to analyze data. Findings indicated vividly that the process of curriculum design must base its objectives on the teacher’s interest, pupils’ interest, as well as individual cultural orientation peculiarities in harmonization with the national ambition. Findings also indicated there has been improvement on the recognition and awareness of ECCE curriculum which was identified as set back in the implementation process by previous researches. With this, two research questions tested were accepted and one was rejected accordingly. Conclusion and recommendations were also drawn stating implications of the study respectively.

Key words: Competency, Utilization, Curriculum, Early Childhood, Development,Caregivers

EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS LEAVES ON RBC COUNT, PCV AND HB CONCENTRATION IN ALBINO RATS

 

1Ojo, N. A., 1Adawaren, E. O., 1Tijjani, M.B., 1 Chongmobmi, M., 1 Ladan, M. K., 1Simon, J., 2Ndahi, J.J. and 1Bargu, J.S.

1Department of Veterinary Physiology,

Pharmacology And Biochemistry,

University of Maiduguri

2Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology

University of Maiduguri

Abstract

Telfairia occidentalis is a tropical vine grown in West Africa. It is highly reputed in traditional medicine. It is extensively cultivated in southern Nigeria especially by the Igbo tribe. It is dioecious, perennial and drought tolerant, and is usually grown trellised.  Ethanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalis was investigated for toxicityand effect on red blood cell count (RBC), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), and Hemoglobin concentration (Hb) in albino rats. Phytochemical screening and elemental analysis were carried out using standard procedures.Lorke’s method was used to evaluate the acute oral toxicity of T.occidentalis using twelve rats. Administration of 3200 mg/kg maximum dose did not produce mortality or general signs of toxicity for 24 hours. The subacute toxicity study was carried out on 20 rats divided into 4 groups of five rats each (i.e A, B, C, and D). GroupB, C and D were treated orally with the ethanolic extract using 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg respectively for 21days while group A received distilled water (ad-libitum) as control group. Blood samples were collected at the end of every week and analyzed for RBC, PCV and Hb concentration using standard procedures. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids. The elemental analysis revealed the presence of sodium, sulphur, chlorine, iron, zinc, manganese and potassium. No death or signs of toxicity were noticed in the rats but there were significant increases (P<0.05, P<0.01) in the PCV and hemoglobin concentration values. Ethanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalisleaves could be said to have low toxicity and significantly increased RBC,PCV and hemoglobin concentration values in rats.

Key words: Telfairiaoccidentalis, Ethanolic extract, Toxicity, RBC PCV, Hb concentration.

EFFECTS OF DEPO PROVERA ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS CEACUM

Akinribido F.A, Duru F.I.O, Yama O.E

Dept  Department of Biological Sciences, Bells University of Technology Ota, Ogun State
Dept of Anatomy,College of Medicine,University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos State

 

Abstract

Depo-Provera inhibits follicular development and prevents ovulation in its  primary mechanism of action. (Hatcher, Robert A. 2004).The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare Effects of Depo Provera on the Morphology of ceacum as it is being used as a contraceptive. A single of Depo Provera contraceptive injection (150mg Medroxyprogesterone Acetate) intraperitoneally, at a dose of 75mg/ 100g body weight was given to ten matured Sprague Dawley rats daily for 10 days. Control matured Sprague Dawley rats of ten received the same amount of distilled water. After about 24hrs later, the rats were sacrificed, the rats ceacum were assessed morphologically. Weight of treated ceacum were compared with controls.Morphologically, Depo-Provera stimulated the ceacum by causing decrease in their weight. This shows that Depo Provera has ability to bind with other tissues causing changes in their morphology. The form and structure of any living being are not constant during the whole of its existence, but undergo a series of changes from the commencement of that existence to its end, living beings have a Development. The history of development is an account of the anatomy of a living being at the successive periods of its existence, and of the manner in which one anatomical stage passes into the next.

Keywords: Depo-Provera, Sprague Dawley Rats, Morphology, Ceacum

PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF JATROPHA CAUCUS ROOT BARK ONSOME LABORATORY BACTERIAL ISOLATES

 

Mohammed S Auwal1*, Umar Kyari Sandabe1, Fatima Abba Lawan2,Ismaila Alh Mairiga3,Muhammad Mustapha3, Abdullahi Shuaibu4,Kyari Abba Sanda 1

1Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

2Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria.

 3Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria.

4Department of Human Anatomy, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

Phytochemical properties and effect of aqueous extract of Jatropha caucus root bark some bacteria isolates was investigated. The root bark extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and Terpenes / steroids. The extract applied in graded concentrations of 200, 400 and 600 mg / ml inhibited the multiplication of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium pyogenes, Candida albican, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Conclusively the root bark extract of this plant has exhibited good antibacterial activity especially on organisms such as Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Streptococcus pyogenes, Proteus spp, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi  that are incriminated in causing diseases such as anthrax, reproductive tract infection, skin infection and various gastrointestinal disorders.

Keywords: Jatropha Curcas, Phytochemical Properties, in Vitro Antibacterial Activity, Aqueous Root Bark Extract.

PARENTAL BACKGROUND AND PEER GROUP INFLUENCE ON STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS CREATIVE ART IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN PORT HARCOURT METROPOLIS.

 

Charles G. T. Omuaru

Department of Fine and Applied Arts

Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni,

P. M. B. 5047, Port Harcourt.

Abstract

Parental guidance and peer grouping plays important role in child development and education, especially in creative art in the secondary schools; however, in certain respects this has continued to generate challenges. Poor attitude of students towards creative arts is a perennial problem that has, for decades, negate the overall acceptance of the creative art as a subject of learning in the schools, designed to train people for small scale businesses and support for the industries.  The study is designed to study the influence of Parental background on students and examine influence of Peer group on students’ attitude towards Creative arts in Junior Secondary Schools in Port Harcourt Metropolis. A number of theories have been reviewed on the study, and in conclusion, the need for the study of students’ attitude towards Creative art is established. For in-depth investigations, two research questions and two hypotheses were developed to direct the research. Survey design was used, this was adopted because it seeks to examine the attitude of small representation to draw inference at the overall population. Port Harcourt, the research area was divided into five strata; 3 schools of close affinity formed one stratum. A researcher developed instrument named SATCASQ (Students’ Attitude towards Creative Art Studies Questionnaire) was used to generate data from randomly selected sample size of 300 students, out of 5,500 students’ population from 15 schools in the Metropolis. A 60% response was recorded from the structured questionnaire sent out, which was committed to data analyses. The data were analysed with Chi-square statistic to determine the influence on the variables. The data analyses clearly showed that there is a high degree of influence of culture and societal influence on students’ attitude towards Creative art in junior secondary schools in Port Harcourt metropolis. Therefore, the null hypotheses are rejected and the alternative hypotheses are retained.

Keywords: Creative art, Parental and Peer group influence, Students’ attitude.

HOW INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY SHAPES GOVERNMENT-PUBLIC RELATIONS: EKITI STATE AS A CASE STUDY.

1)Aborisade Philip. Olubunmi and 2)Bamisaye Femi Kehinde,

1)Department of Media and Communication,

Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti.

2)National Open University of Nigeria, Lagos Nigeria

 

Abstract

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have always played a vital role in every aspect of governmental activities. The government and general public using public relation effectively has gotten a boost. This article reports a recent study on how information and communication technology shapes government-public relations in Ekiti State for the period of four years administration of the Dr. John KayodeFayemi-led administration in Ekiti State, Nigeria from 2010 to 2014.The research used qualitative method to provide answers to the research questions. This involves Interviews conducted among the indigenes of Ekiti State in the sixteen local government areas of the state, government officials involved in government-public relations such as Information officers in different ministries, permanent secretaries, and politicians in the major political parties in the state and information technology experts. Five Ekiti citizens were randomly selected and interviewed from each of the sixteen local government areas totaling eighty people in all. Five Information officers and five permanent secretaries were interviewed while five technology experts and five internet users in the state were interviewed. So, two hundred people were interviewed in all while secondary sources also provided data to answer the research questions. This research reveals that though government fully utilized information and communication technology to reach out to the people, some citizens were alienated, particularly those who have no access to modern technology such as the internet and the new media modalities such as facebook, twitter etc. This research also points out the need for government to increase awareness among the people at the grassroots to embrace information and communication technology. It also urges the Public Relations (PR) practitioners to employ the use of technology in Public Relations Practice.

Key Words: Information, Communication, Technology, Government-Public Relations, Media Modalities, Modern Technology.

STAFF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEEDS OF ACCOUNTING PERSONNEL IN AN ESTABLISHMENT

 

1)Sarabi Joe Jerry2) Grace Emmanuel

1) Department of Accounting, Intercontinental University (ICU), Porto-Novo, West Africa

2) Department of Accounts, University of Calabar, Teaching Hospital, Cross Rivers State, Nigeria, West Africa

 

 

Abstract

Training concerned with the performance and the application of skills and knowledge. It is a primary instrument for sustaining and improving the capacities of employees to contribute to organizational growth. The issue of the staff training and developmental needs has actually been given little or no attention, thought and consideration by both practitioners and theorists. This paper aimed to bring to focus why methods of teaching in institutions of learning should be geared toward accounting practices in firm orthe needs for training or retraining of accounting personnel staff. This is because accounting methods thought in schools may not be the practices in firms and establishments. A total of 50 questionnaires containing 24 research questions were made; 25 each were distributed to accounting personnel in the Intercontinental University Porto-Novo and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, all in West Africa. Eighty percent (40) of the questionnaires were returned and correctly filled. Statistical methods used to analyze the data were the mean and chi-square. Results revealed that greater height in any establishment can be achieved through staff training and retraining. Thus, it is recommended that accounting personnel training be emphasized so as to ensure proper utilization of skills.

Key Word: Personnel, Utilization, Retraining, Skills, Hypothesis.

COMPLIANCE WITH DIET AND ACTIVITY REGIMEN AMONG PATIENTS LIVING WITH DIABETES MELLITUS.

*1Dathini H.,  2Kever R.T.,  3Habu H. 4Dawa K.K.. 5Lola N.,  6Tumba M.

*1,2,3,4,5Department of Nursing Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State.

6Dr Gwamna Awan Memorial Hospital, Kakuri

 

Abstract

Compliance with therapeutic regimen has been a longstanding concern since decades ago. This study was carried out to assess diabetic patients’ knowledge on the importance of diet and exercise in the management of diabetes mellitus among patient attending university of Maiduguri teaching hospital, explore diabetic patients’ level of compliance with diet and exercise regimens, identify factors responsible for compliance with diet and exercise regimens among diabetic patients and to assess the relationship between diabetic and their patients prescribers in the university of Maiduguri teaching hospital. The study was conducted using descriptive design. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select 120 participants from diabetics’ clinic of University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. Self structured questionnaire was used in collecting data for the study. Data collected were analyzed using simple frequency and percentages and were presented on tables. Two hypotheses were formulated to determine the relationship between gender and compliance to physical activity; duration of illness and knowledge of respondent on dietary regimen using chi square at 5% level of significant. Findings of the study revealed that (61.7%) of the participants have good knowledge about the importance of diet and exercise in management of diabetes, despite good knowledge; participant only partly complied with their regimen. The finding also revealed that, major factors found to influence their compliance include cost of diabetic diet (93.3%) and waiting time in the clinic (88.3%). Result from the hypotheses tested revealed that there was no significant association between gender and compliance to physical activity; duration of illness and knowledge of respondent on dietary regimen .The study then concludes that despite good knowledge, compliance with diet and exercise regimen is still not adequate among diabetic patients. Health care providers should therefore embark on an intensive health education on the importance of compliance.

Key Words: Diabetes, Diet, Activity, Regimen.

PERFORMANCE OF EXOTIC CHICKEN (NERA SEX-LINK) LAYERS ON FREE-RANGE SUPPLEMENTED WITH VARYING LEVELS OF COMMERCIAL LAYER MASH

                                                                                          Ikperite S.E1 and Kperegbeyi J.I1

1 School of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Technology,

Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro, Nigeria.

 

           

Abstract

The experiment was conducted to investigate the performance of Nera Sex-link layers on free- range supplemented with varying levels of commercial layer mash. A total of one hundred (100) Nera Sex-link  layers of six weeks of age were used for the study. They were allotted to four treatments consisting of five replicates of five layers..Treatment 1, served as the control with 125g of mash per layer per day in battery cage, Treatment 2 and 3 groups were placed on free – range supplemented with 63.5g and 31.25g of mash per layer per day and Treatment 4 contained layers fed themselves from the free – range respectively. The study lasted for nine (9) weeks..The results indicated that supplementing available nutrients on free-range with 62.5g of mash per layer per day is as good as feeding the exotic chickens with 125g of mash per layer per day in battery cage without affecting performance of egg production, egg size, body weight gain and survivability in the study. Free-range keeping of exotic chicken layers with adequate mash supplementation is therefore recommended for poor resource farmers in rural areas.

Key words: Free-range, supplementation, Nera Sex-link, performance, egg size, egg production. 

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