Education, Humanities and Multidisciplinary Research

Education, Humanities and Multidisciplinary Research (9)


1) Sarabi Joe Jerry 2) Grace Emmanuel

1) Department of Accounting, Intercontinental University (ICU), Porto-Novo, West Africa

2) Department of Accounts, University of Calabar, Teaching Hospital, Cross Rivers State, Nigeria, West Africa


Training concerned with the performance and the application of skills and knowledge. It is a primary instrument for sustaining and improving the capacities of employees to contribute to organizational growth. The issue of the staff training and developmental needs has actually been given little or no attention, thought and consideration by both practitioners and theorists. This paper aimed to bring to focus why methods of teaching in institutions of learning should be geared toward accounting practices in firm orthe needs for training or retraining of accounting personnel staff. This is because accounting methods thought in schools may not be the practices in firms and establishments. A total of 50 questionnaires containing 24 research questions were made; 25 each were distributed to accounting personnel in the Intercontinental University Porto-Novo and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, all in West Africa. Eighty percent (40) of the questionnaires were returned and correctly filled. Statistical methods used to analyze the data were the mean and chi-square. Results revealed that greater height in any establishment can be achieved through staff training and retraining. Thus, it is recommended that accounting personnel training be emphasized so as to ensure proper utilization of skills.

Key Word: Personnel, Utilization, Retraining, Skills, Hypothesis.

G. S. Effiong* and D. J. Udoh

Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture

University of Uyo, Bag10l7, Uyo, Nigeria

Abstract:    This study  was conducted to characterize  some inland depression soils in Southeastern Nigeria  and recommend management option for  sustainable  crop production.Eight profile pits were sited at Ekpene Ukpa (Ek1), Nung Obong (NO3 and NO4), Ikot Obong (KS2), Ibiaku Ikot Obong (TU16), Ikot Eto (ND15), Awa Ntong (AU17) and Ikot Okobo (AU18) depressions. Results showed that soil texture ranged from sand through sandy loam to sandy clay  loam. Soil  reaction  varied  from very  strongly  to moderately  acid (3.0 -  6.0) with pH value averaged 5.0 ± 0.4. Organic matter  content was high in the surface  soils (23.22  - 51.43gkg-1)  while total N level was low (0.1 –  1.3gkg-1). Available P  (4.26  -  253mgkg-1ranged from low to very  high. Cation exchange  capacity  (CEC) was low while  percentage base saturation ranged from moderate to high (33 - 83%). The main constraints to sustainable crop production in these soils are low chemical fertility (moderate to high exchange acidity, low CEC, total N level, high percent Al saturation, 20 - 98%) and rapid weed growth. Slash and mulch system along with crop residues return and application of green leaf manures to the soil  could affect several restorative  processes in addition to suppressing  weed growth. Mineral fertilizers, if available could have the desired effect on the soil by increasing biomass production for use as residue mulch and yield of crops.

Keywords: Inland wetlands, characteristics, soil management, crop production. 


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*1.Gaya, A. G., Gurama, A. U.2 and Fagam, A. S.2

 1.Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Kano

University of Science and Technology,Wudil, Kano State, Nigeria

2 Crop Production Programme, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology,

3 Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria


Field trials were  carried out at  the Teaching and Research farm of  Kano University of Science of Technology, Wudil with two pearl millet varieties in 2003, 2004and 2005 rain seasons to investigate the effect of inter- and intra-row spacings of pearl millet infected with downy  mildew on panicle  weight  in Kano State,  Nigeria. The experimental  materials consist of factorial combinations of  two  varieties (SOSAT  C88 and Zango), three  inter-row  spacings (50, 75 and 100cm)  and four intra-row  spacings (15, 30, 45 and 60cm). The treatments were laid out in randomized complete block design with three  replications. Data collected on panicle  weight were  subjected  to analysis ofvariance  and Duncan’s Multiple  Range  Test (DMRT)  was used for the  separation of means at 1% and 5%  levels of significance.  Result  shows that  SOSAT  C88 had significantly (P≤0.05 and P≤0.01) produced the heaviest panicle as compared to Zango which had the lightest in 2003 and 2005. Planting pearl millet at 75cm inter- row spacing significantly  (P≤0.01)  resulted in having heaviest  panicles than using  other inter-row spacings. Using 30 and 60cm intra-row spacings produced the heaviest panicles, while15 and 45cm resulted in getting light panicle heads. Heaviest panicles were significantly (P≤0.01)  obtained when  pearl millet varieties were  inter-  x  intra-row  spaced at 75 x 30cm and 75 x  60cm   combinations respectively  than those spaced out using  other spacing combinations where  lighter panicle  heads were  obtained.  It is however, recommended to grow pearl millet using wider inter- and intra-row spacings for heaviest panicle heads.

Key words: Downy mildew, inter-row, intra-row, panicle weight, pearl millet 


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(1)Voke Mgbonyebi Charles(2)Venerable F.C.A Emeni

(1)Dept of Political Science ( 2) Dept of History

College of Education, Agbor


 This paper highlights the  essence  of good governance  in government and the entrenchment of democracy in the Fourth Republic. A corollary of good governance is transparency in elections and choosing of representatives in  the democratic  system. The  paper examines the electoral system in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic vis-a-vis the practice of democracy and proposes that for national development purposes, good governance and transparency are essential ingredients forentrenchment of democracy in Nigeria.

Key words: Good Governance, Transparency, Development, Fourth Republic.


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Antiabong O. Ekong, Aniefiok S. Akpan and Ngozi G. Ubah

Department of Vocational Education

University of Uyo

P. M. B. 1017, Uyo

Akwa Ibom State- Nigeria


This study assessed the influence reward system on attrition tendencyof Agriculture teachers in  Akwa  Ibom State.  Two  research questions  and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The entire population of 316 serving Agriculture teachers were purposively used for the study. A two  sectioned–11-items  structured  questionnaire  was developed and used for data  collection. Data were analyzed using mean  for the research questions and t-test  for testing the hypotheses at 0.05 level  of significance. The findings revealed that job security ensure stability of agriculture teachers in  the teaching profession  while  regular payment of salary promotes collaborative self-help and interest in the management of scare resources among Agriculture teachers. The result of hypothesis testing showed a  significant difference  in  the mean  responses  of male and female Agriculture teachers on  the influence  of job  security on  attrition tendency. The  result of hypothesis two showed no significant difference in the responses of NCE holders and graduates Agriculture teachers on the influence of regular payment of salary on their attrition tendency. It was recommended that the reward system for teachers should be improved to  attract  qualified  and competent individuals to  the system and teachers’  job  security should not be threatened  through incessant queries by principals and supervisors of schools. 



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This paper focuses on the role of business Education towards national security.  Business education is a domain that educate and train individual to acquire skills, attitudes and knowledge to become self reliant.  If well taught in our schools the tendency of violent, youth unemployment and unrest, poverty and thuggery will be a thing of the past. Thus leading to peaceful  society.   With National Policy  on Education empowering on these roles, Business education has the capacity  to delivered Nigeria  into a committee of developed nations in the nearest future.

Key word: Business Education, National Security.


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 1John A. U. Uka(2) Vincent E. Onweh (3) Peter J. Udoessiet

Department of Technical Education, 

Rivers State University of Education

Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt, Rivers State.

(2,3) Department of Vocational Education

University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State.


The curriculum is the prime mover to achieve students’ skills acquisition. It is always in tandem with the dynamics and societal changes. Skills acquisition of employable skills for self-reliance have  received increasing  attention in the recent past  in Nigerian Educational Policy. An important ingredient for success in the on-going efforts by the government at alleviating poverty, minimizing corruption, attaining food  security, achieving uninterrupted electric  power supply, reducing unemployment of youths and keeping pace with the dynamics of societal changes and emerging technologies, is the effective delivery of qualitative technical and vocational education courses. This paper highlights constructivism in instructional delivery as what most present-day technical teachers should adopt: a framework in which the role of the teacher becomes that of a facilitator. The  paper posits the  need to strengthen the vocational education curriculum, adequately  supply  of instructional materials  and  the motivate  the teacher who is at  the centre stage of all the activities in skills acquisition. Some recommendations to government were also made.

Keywords:   Dynamics, Societal, Changes, Curriculum, Vocational skills Acquisition


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Bakare Waheed Ademola and Babajo Hapsatu

Department of Agricultural Education

School of vocation education

Federal College of Education, Yola 


This paper identified sustainable Agricultural Education as a key to National Security, by looking at roles of agricultural education which include preparing graduates with right professional competence in vocational skills, producing teachers who will be capable of motivating students to acquire interest in agriculture, equipping the students teachers with adequate knowledge  and ability  to  establish and manage  a model  school farm effectively and providing a sound background to enhance  further academic  and professional progression  of the students-teachers. All these  are aimed at providing enabling ground in eradicating ignorance, poverty and sustainable food security for the country. Recommendations are made on how to achieve this laudable agriculture for selfreliance, so that  Nigeria  will soon be  among the  committee  of developed  Nations with peaceful  society.

Keywords; Sustainable, Security, Agriculture, Vocational, Global, Reliant, Egalitarian,Harmony  


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Mohammed K. Aisha and Yahaya Abdulrasheed

Department of Early Childhood Care and Education

Federal College of Education, Yola


One  must recognize that  any  thing worth doing  must be  done  effectively and efficiently, caregiver’s  competency  in the utilization of ECCE curriculum was the  topic designed for this research  with the  purpose of assessing the  level of  effective  and  efficient utilization of  the curriculum design for pre-school children.  Three  research questions were  objectively tested; sample respondents for the study were  randomly  selected among teachers of preschool in Adamawa state. Survey  study was conducted using  three  instrumental methods for data collection. Average weighted response (TAWR) was the statistical technique employed to analyze data. Findings indicated vividly that the process of curriculum design must base its objectives on the teacher interest, pupils’  interest, as well  as  individual  cultural  orientation peculiarities in harmonization with the national ambition. Findings also indicated there has been improvement on the recognition and awareness of ECCE curriculum which was identified as set back in the implementation process by  previous researches.  With this,  two research questions tested were accepted and one was rejection accordingly. Conclusion and recommendations were also drawn stating implications of the study respectively

Key words: Competency, Utilization, Curriculum, Early Childhood, Development, Caregivers


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